Osvald T. Avery and the Nobel Prize in Medicine

@article{Reichard2002OsvaldTA,
  title={Osvald T. Avery and the Nobel Prize in Medicine},
  author={Peter A Reichard},
  journal={The Journal of Biological Chemistry},
  year={2002},
  volume={277},
  pages={13355 - 13362}
}
  • P. Reichard
  • Published 19 April 2002
  • Chemistry, Medicine
  • The Journal of Biological Chemistry
In 1944 the Journal of Experimental Medicine published a paper by Osvald T. Avery and collaborators (1) entitled “Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance-inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types. Induction of Transformation by a Desoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction Isolated from Pneumococcus type III.” Avery reported the results of more than 15 years of systematic attempts to identify the chemical nature of the substance that changes a heritable property of a bacterium. He demonstrated… 
Oswald T. Avery: Nobel Laureate or Noble Luminary?
  • F. Portugal
  • Biology, Medicine
    Perspectives in biology and medicine
  • 2010
TLDR
Based on the archival record, it seems that key biological chemists "were not convinced by Avery's claim that DNA was the basis of heredity, that no geneticists nominated Avery, and that most nominators overlooked Avery's work on DNA in favor of his work on the immunogenicity of the bacterial capsule".
Nobel Prizes and the emerging virus concept
  • E. Norrby
  • Biology, Medicine
    Archives of Virology
  • 2008
TLDR
The final phase of the evolution of the understanding of the virus concept closely paralleled the eventual insight into the chemical nature of the genetic material.
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty Identified DNA as the Genetic Material: A Celebrated Case of a Clinical Observation That Led to a Fundamental Basic Discovery
TLDR
The historical background and the scientific circumstances of Avery’s research, from clinically oriented studies of pneumococcus to its ultimate culmination in the unanticipated milestone finding that DNA is the genetic material.
Chapter 28 History and d evelopment of m olecular b iology
It is entirely fi tting that a new edition of Molecular Hematology is being developed in 2009, the bicentenary of the birth of Charles Darwin and 150 years since the publication of On the Origin of
Reflections on the prize of prizes: Alfred Nobel
  • T. Pederson
  • Medicine, Biology
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2006
TLDR
In 1893, a young man named Ragnar Sohlman was hired as the private assistant to a successful industrialist, Alfred Nobel, and he played a key role in events that led to worldwide acclaim and admiration for his employer—Alfred Bernhard Nobel.
Is the Nobel Prize good for science?
  • A. Casadevall, F. Fang
  • Biology, Medicine
    FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • 2013
TLDR
Changing the Nobel Prize to more fairly allocate credit would reduce the potential for controversy and directly benefit the scientific enterprise by promoting cooperation and collaboration of scientists within a field to reduce the negative consequences of competition between individual scientists.
Invasive Pneumococcal Infections
TLDR
In conclusion, incidence and CFR have changed considerably over time and vary widely between different age and risk groups and these factors have to be considered during planning and evaluation of vaccination against pneumococci.
Dynamics and genome-centricity of interchromatin domains in the nucleus
TLDR
Beyond their roles in gene expression or other nuclear functions, the dynamic behaviour of some of these interchromatin domains is providing clues to the modes of mass transport operating in the nucleus, as well as to the long-elusive deep structure of the nucleoplasm.
Increased ACTL6A Occupancy within mSWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelers Drives Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma
TLDR
It is demonstrated that ACTL 6A overexpression leads to its stoichiometric assembly into BAF complexes and drives its interaction and engagement with specific regulatory regions in the genome and explains the specificity of the role of ACTL6A amplification in SCCs.
GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDIES AT THE INTERFACE OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE AND EPIDEMIOLOGICALLY RELATED DISORDERS
TLDR
This article is intended to assist in the development of decision-making and improve the quality of individual decisions in the sport of baseball.
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 21 REFERENCES
Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation on pneumococcal types; an improved method for the isolation of the transforming substance and its application to Pneumococcus Types II, III, and VI.
In this second of two direct follow-ups to the 1944 paper on the Transforming Principle, Avery and McCarty provided further details of experimentation which showed that citrate (a salt or ester of
The Dynamic State of Body Constituents
A new milestone in the development of knowledge of metabolic processes was reached in 1934 when the late Rudolf Schoenheimer turned to the use of stable isotopic elements as a label in organic
Rate of Renewal of Ribo‐ and Desoxyribo Nucleic Acids
Summary. Labelled sodium phosphate is administered to rats and after the lapse of 2 hours the specific activity of the ribo-nucleic acid phosphorus and that of the desoxyribo-nucleic acid
INDEPENDENT FUNCTIONS OF VIRAL PROTEIN AND NUCLEIC ACID IN GROWTH OF BACTERIOPHAGE
TLDR
All types of evidence show that the passage of phage DNA into the cell occurs in non-nutrient medium under conditions in which other known steps in viral growth do not occur.
PURIFICATION AND PROPERTIES OF DESOXYRIBONUCLEASE ISOLATED FROM BEEF PANCREAS
  • M. Mccarty
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    The Journal of general physiology
  • 1946
TLDR
The enzyme requires activation by magnesium or manganese ion, and citrate serves as a potent inhibitor of the magnesium-activated enzyme, and its enzymatic activity is inhibited by the specific antibody present in the serum of rabbits immunized with enzyme protein.
X-Ray Study of Thymonucleic Acid
A FEW years ago an occasion presented itself of examining by X-rays a small specimen of sodium thymonucleate kindly provided by Prof. W. J. Schmidt1 of Giessen, and an imperfect fibre photograph was
Nucleic Acid Metabolism of the Chromosomes in Relation to Gene Reproduction
TLDR
Evidence is given of a relation between nucleic acid metabolism and gene reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster races due to an abnormality of gene reproduction, consequent upon chromosome rearrangements involving the ‘heterochromatic’ regions.
Pentose Nucleotides in the Cytoplasm of Growing Tissues
INTEREST in the nucleic acid metabolism of mitosis has in general tended to centre on the nucleus. More recently evidence has been obtained showing an interplay between the nucleic acid metabolism of
Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
TLDR
The determination in 1953 of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), with its two entwined helices and paired organic bases, was a tour de force in X-ray crystallography and opened the way for a deeper understanding of perhaps the most important biological process.
...
1
2
3
...