Osteology of the thoracic limb of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana).


The forelimb bones of 8 elephants (7 adults, 1 juvenile) were studied. In addition, the bones of the digits were dissected and studied in situ in a mature specimen. The scapula, humerus and bones of the antebrachium (particularly the ulna) are massive in comparison to the short, relatively small bones of the manus. There are 8 carpal bones, 5 metacarpal… (More)