Osteological and Genetic Analysis of the Extinct Ezo Wolf (Canis Lupus Hattai) from Hokkaido Island, Japan

  title={Osteological and Genetic Analysis of the Extinct Ezo Wolf (Canis Lupus Hattai) from Hokkaido Island, Japan},
  author={Naotaka Ishiguro and Yasuo Inoshima and Nobuo Shigehara and Hideo Ichikawa and Masaru Kato},
  booktitle={Zoological science},
The Ezo wolf (Canis lupus hattai Kishida, 1931) is an extinct subspecies that inhabited Hokkaido in Japan until the middle of the Meiji Period. Because there are very few preserved skeletons, no osteological and/or genetic analyses of the Ezo wolf have been conducted. In this study, 20 cranial and eight mandibular characters were measured on Ezo wolf skeletons, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was analyzed to assess genetic relationships between the Ezo wolf and other wolf lineages, including the… 
Reconstructing the colonization history of lost wolf lineages by the analysis of the mitochondrial genome.
It is suggested that at least several thousands of wolves once inhabited in the Japanese archipelago, and an enigmatic clade of domestic dogs is likely to have originated from rare admixture events between male dogs and female Japanese wolves.
Reconstruction of the extinct Ezo wolf's diet
Ezo wolves had similar ecological roles to Canadian grey wolves, and were a second subspecies shown to have fed on a marine diet, in addition to the ‘coastal wolves’ of British Columbia.
Extended survival of Pleistocene Siberian wolves into the early 20th century on the island of Honshū
Honshū wolves were closely related to a lineage of Siberian wolves that were previously believed to have gone extinct in the Late Pleistocene, thereby extending the survival of this ancient lineage until the early 20th century.
Ancient DNA Analysis of the Oldest Canid Species from the Siberian Arctic and Genetic Contribution to the Domestic Dog
A European origin of domestic dog may not be conclusive and an emerging complexity of genetic contribution of regional wolf breeds to the modern Canis gene pool is illustrated.
Analysis of the Mitochondrial Genomes of Japanese Wolf Specimens in the Siebold Collection, Leiden
The taxonomic status of extinct Japanese or Honshu wolves has been disputed since the name hodophilax was first proposed by Temminck in 1839 and a mitochondrial genome analysis suggested that Japanese wolves could be categorized into two distinct clusters.
Japanese Wolves are Genetically Divided into Two Groups Based on an 8-Nucleotide Insertion/Deletion within the mtDNA Control Region
The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of four ancient Canis specimens was examined, and each specimen was genetically identified as Japanese wolf, and two unique nucleotide substitutions were observed in each sample.
A re-examination of C. J. Temminck's sources for his descriptions of the extinct Japanese wolf
Unpublished manuscripts sent from Japan by the German physician and naturalist Philipp Franz von Siebold (1796–1866) to the Dutch zoologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck (1778–1858) show that Siebold


Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of the Japanese Wolf (Canis Lupus Hodophilax Temminck, 1839) and Comparison with Representative Wolf and Domestic Dog Haplotypes
The mtDNA haplotypes from the eight Japanese wolf specimens were closely related to each other and grouped in a single lineage with an 88% bootstrap value in a neighbor-joining analysis, providing valuable information for understanding the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of the Japanese wolf.
Bottleneck Effects on the Sika Deer Cervus nippon Population in Hokkaido, Revealed by Ancient DNA Analysis
It is indicated that their genetic diversity was reduced through the bottleneck and that population structures of sika deer were changed widely in Hokkaido due to genetic drift.
Phylogenetic Relationships among Worldwide Populations of the Brown Bear Ursus arctos
The results suggest that brown bears may have widely colonized Eurasia and North America from their original areas somewhere in Eurasia more than once.
Extensive interbreeding occurred among multiple matriarchal ancestors during the domestication of dogs: evidence from inter- and intraspecies polymorphisms in the D-loop region of mitochondrial DNA between dogs and wolves.
The results suggested that the extant breeds of domestic dogs have maintained a large degree of mtDNA polymorphisms introduced from their ancestral wolf populations, and that extensive interbreedings had occurred among multiple matriarchal origins.
Osteometrical and CT examination of the Japanese wolf skull.
The skulls of Japanese wolf (Canis hodophilax) were osteometrically examined and compared with those of Akita-Inu. The skull total length was not statistically different between two species. However,
Molecular evolution of the dog family.
  • R. Wayne
  • Biology, Medicine
    Trends in genetics : TIG
  • 1993
High rates of gene flow among populations within some species, such as the coyote and gray wolf, have suppressed genetic divergence, and where these species hybridize, large hybrid zones have been formed.
Variations in Mitochondrial DNA of Dogs Isolated from Archaeological Sites in Japan and Neighbouring Islands
From results, it could not discern which modern Japanese dog breed closely resembles ancient dogs using phylogenetic analysis, but the CL1 cluster was likely distributed in the Japanese archipelago from the Jomon Period.
Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog.
Sequences from both dogs and wolves showed considerable diversity and supported the hypothesis that wolves were the ancestors of dogs, suggesting that dogs originated more than 100,000 years before the present.
Lineage classification of canine inheritable disorders using mitochondrial DNA haplotypes.
Estimating the maternal effects of dog breeds using mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) haplotypes in the dogs with several clinical disorders revealed that each dog breed genetically comprises one or a few mtDNA haplotypes, but no disorder closely associated with mt DNA haplotypes was detected.
Intra- and interbreed genetic variations of mitochondrial DNA major non-coding regions in Japanese native dog breeds (Canis familiaris).
Phylogenetic analysis showed that Japanese native dog breeds could not be clearly delimited as distinct breeds, and interbreed nucleotide differences between Japanese dog breeds were almost the same as the intrabreed nucleotide diversities.