Osteoclast differentiation and activation

@article{Boyle2003OsteoclastDA,
  title={Osteoclast differentiation and activation},
  author={William J. Boyle and William S. Simonet and David L. Lacey},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2003},
  volume={423},
  pages={337-342}
}
Osteoclasts are specialized cells derived from the monocyte/macrophage haematopoietic lineage that develop and adhere to bone matrix, then secrete acid and lytic enzymes that degrade it in a specialized, extracellular compartment. Discovery of the RANK signalling pathway in the osteoclast has provided insight into the mechanisms of osteoclastogenesis and activation of bone resorption, and how hormonal signals impact bone structure and mass. Further study of this pathway is providing the… 

Osteoclast Differentiation Assay.

TLDR
A general protocol of inducing osteoclast differentiation from the murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, and identification of osteoclasts with the classical TRAP assay is described.

Identification of osteoclasts in culture.

TLDR
Methods for the identification of osteoclasts formed in vitro are described and it is shown that RANKL and M-CSF can be induced from monocyte-macrophage lineage cells even in the absence of osteoblasts.

Generation of human osteoclasts from peripheral blood.

TLDR
This chapter describes the method for generating human osteoclast from peripheral blood or buffy coats, as well as methods for studying both the differentiation and resorbing activity of these cells.

Osteoclast lineage and function.

Regulation of Osteoclast Activity

TLDR
The stimulation of myelomonocytic precursors also requires MCSF to induce the formation of osteoclasts, and the aim of this chapter is to focus specifically on the regulation of osteoclast activity.

Osteoclasts: New Insights

TLDR
New advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of osteoclast differentiation and function are discussed, including c-Fms and RANK signaling have been shown to regulate bone resorption by cross-talking with those activated by integrin αvβ3.

Generation and culture of osteoclasts.

TLDR
The most commonly used procedures for the isolation, generation and characterization of human, rodent and chicken osteoclasts in vitro are summarized.

The role of osteoclast differentiation and function in skeletal homeostasis.

TLDR
The importance of cell-cell contact and metabolic adaptation for differentiation, relatively overlooked aspects of osteoclast biology and biochemistry are focused on.
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