Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells on akermanite and β-TCP bioceramics.
OBJECTIVE This study investigated the surface characteristics and in vitro osteoconductivity of a titanium (Ti) surface incorporated with the magnesium ions (Mg) produced by hydrothermal treatment for future application as an endosseous implant surface. MATERIAL AND METHODS Mg-incorporated Ti oxide surfaces were produced by hydrothermal treatment using Mg-containing solution on two different microstructured surfaces--abraded minimally rough (Ma) or grit-blasted moderately rough (RBM) samples. The surface characteristics were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, thin-film X-ray diffractometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, optical profilometry, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cell attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and quantitative analysis of osteoblastic gene expression on Ma, RBM, Mg-incorporated Ma (Mg), and Mg-incorporated grit-blasted (RBM/Mg) Ti surfaces were evaluated. RESULTS Hydrothermal treatment produced an Mg-incorporated Ti oxide layer with nanoporous surface structures. Mg-incorporated surfaces showed surface morphologies and surface roughness values almost identical to those of untreated smooth or micro-rough surfaces at the micron scale. ICP-AES analysis showed Mg ions released from treated surfaces into the solution. Mg incorporation significantly increased cellular attachment (P=0 at 0.5 h, P=0.01 at 1 h) on smooth surfaces, but no differences were found on micro-rough surfaces. Mg incorporation further increased ALP activity in cells grown on both smooth and micro-rough surfaces at 7 and 14 days of culture (P=0). Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed higher mRNA expressions of the osteoblast transcription factor gene (Dlx5), various integrins, and the osteoblast phenotype genes (ALP, bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin) in cells grown on micro-rough (RBM) and Mg-incorporated (Mg and RBM/Mg) surfaces than those on Ma surfaces. Mg incorporation further increased the mRNA expressions of key osteoblast genes and integrins (α1, α2, α5, and β1) in cells grown on both the smooth and the micro-rough surfaces. CONCLUSION These results indicate that an Mg-incorporated nanoporous Ti oxide surface produced by hydrothermal treatment may improve implant bone healing by enhancing the attachment and differentiation of osteoblastic cells.