Osmoregulation and excretion.

@article{Larsen2014OsmoregulationAE,
  title={Osmoregulation and excretion.},
  author={Erik Hviid Larsen and Lewis E. Deaton and Horst Onken and Michael O'donnell and Martin Grosell and William H. Dantzler and Dirk Weihrauch},
  journal={Comprehensive Physiology},
  year={2014},
  volume={4 2},
  pages={405-573}
}
The article discusses advances in osmoregulation and excretion with emphasis on how multicellular animals in different osmotic environments regulate their milieu intérieur. Mechanisms of energy transformations in animal osmoregulation are dealt with in biophysical terms with respect to water and ion exchange across biological membranes and coupling of ion and water fluxes across epithelia. The discussion of functions is based on a comparative approach analyzing mechanisms that have evolved in… CONTINUE READING

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