OsNUC1 encodes rice nucleolin, which has been shown to be involved in salt stress responses. Expression of the full-length OsNUC1 gene in Arabidopsis resulted in hypersensitivity to ABA during germination. Transcriptome analysis of the transgenic lines, in comparison with the wild type, revealed that the RNA abundance of >1,900 genes was significantly changed under normal growth conditions, while under salt stress conditions the RNAs of 999 genes were found to be significantly regulated. Gene enrichment analysis showed that under normal conditions OsNUC1 resulted in repression of genes involved in photosynthesis, while in salt stress conditions OsNUC1 increased expression of the genes involved in the light-harvesting complex. Correspondingly, the net rate of photosynthesis of the transgenic lines was increased under salt stress. Transgenic rice lines with overexpression of the OsNUC1-L gene were generated and tested for photosynthetic performance under salt stress conditions. The transgenic rice lines treated with salt stress at the booting stage had a higher photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance in flag leaves and second leaves than the wild type. Moreover, higher contents of Chl a and carotenoids were found in flag leaves of the transgenic rice. These results suggest a role for OsNUC1 in the modification of the transcriptome, especially the gene transcripts responsible for photosynthesis, leading to stabilization of photosynthesis under salt stress conditions.