Orthostatic hypotension and nicotine sensitivity in a case of multiple system atrophy.

@article{Graham1969OrthostaticHA,
  title={Orthostatic hypotension and nicotine sensitivity in a case of multiple system atrophy.},
  author={John G. Graham and David R. Oppenheimer},
  journal={Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery \& Psychiatry},
  year={1969},
  volume={32},
  pages={28 - 34}
}
Shy and Drager (1960), on the basis of some 40 published case reports, described a clinical syndrome to which their names have subsequently been attached. The complete syndrome includes orthostatic hypotension, anhidrosis, urinary and faecal incontinence, sexual impotence, Parkinsonian signs, external ocular palsies, amyotrophy, and iris atrophy. A detailed post-mortem examination of one of their cases showed neuronal degeneration at many sites, including the intermediolateral columns of the… 
Pathological findings in idiopathic orthostatic hypotension. Its relationship with Parkinson's disease.
TLDR
The condition is now generally recognized as "idiopathic orthostatic hypotension" (IOH), and the associated neurological symptoms vary from case to case and may include pyramidal, extrapyramsidal, cerebellar, and lower motor neuron syndromes.
Shy‐Drager syndrome
TLDR
The Shy-Drager syndrome is described, which has been observed in association with diabetes mellitus, Addison’s disease, and many other systemic disorders, and is regarded as a secondary manifestation of postural hypotension.
Multiple system atrophy
TLDR
MSA was considered a rare disease but many patients with MSA are misdiagnosed as suffering from idiopathic Parkinson's disease, it is clear from a large postmortem series of parkinsonian brains that cases of M SA are more common than previously thought.
Shy-Drager Syndrome. Neuropathological Correlation and Response to Levodopa Therapy
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  • Biology, Medicine
    Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences / Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
  • 1976
TLDR
It is proposed that in Shy-Drager syndrome, levodopa therapy benefits orthostatic hypotension because of a suppression of the central depressor action of this drug.
Ultrastructure and biochemistry of sympathetic ganglia in idiopathic orthostatic hypotension
TLDR
The role of transsynaptic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of idiopathic orthostatic hypotension (IOH) was examined microsocopically and biochemically in autopsy specimens and the sympathetic ganglia showed abnormalities in all 4 IOH patients.
Farewell to the Shy-Drager Syndrome
  • I. Schatz
  • Medicine, Psychology
    Annals of Internal Medicine
  • 1996
TLDR
A recent consensus statement generated by the American Autonomic Society and the American Academy of Neurology defines the various primary neurogenic causes of autonomic dysfunction and the need to bid good-bye to the use of the term Shy-Drager syndrome.
Idiopathic orthostatic hypotension; a study of its natural history in 57 neurologically affected patients.
TLDR
While the clinical entity of IOH has become much better known recently, the neurologic symptoms and signs are not always recognized as a part of the syndrome.
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TLDR
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Autonomic failure with orthostatic hypotension due to intermediolateral column degeneration. A report of two cases with autopsies.
TLDR
Two patients who had autonomio failure with orthostatic hypotension are described, and post-mortem examination showed severe nerve-cell loss in the intermediolateral columns of the spinal cord.
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Patients with idiopathic orthostatic hypotension may show wide swings in blood pressure, but do not have the pulse changes or symptoms, such as yawning, nausea, or increased sweating, associated with other types of syncope in which the nervous system is intact.
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