Orthogonal-Ordering Constraints are Tough

  title={Orthogonal-Ordering Constraints are Tough},
  author={Ulrik Brandes and Barbara Pampel},
  journal={J. Graph Algorithms Appl.},
We show that rectilinear graph drawing, the core problem of bendminimum orthogonal graph drawing, and uniform edge-length drawing, the core problem of force-directed placement, are NP-hard even for embedded paths if subjected to orthogonal-ordering constraints. 

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