Mouse brain ornithine decarboxylase activity is about 70-fold higher at the time of birth compared with that of adult mice. Enzyme activity declines rapidly after birth and reaches the adult level by 3 weeks. Immunoreactive enzyme concentration parallels very closely the decrease of enzyme activity during the first postnatal week, remaining constant thereafter. The content of brain antizyme, the macromolecular inhibitor to ornithine decarboxylase, in turn is very low during the first 7 days and starts then to increase and at the age of 3 weeks it is about six times the level of that in newborn mice. This may explain the decrease in enzyme activity during brain maturation, and suggests the regulation of polyamine biosynthesis by an antizyme-mediated mechanism in adult brain.