Ornaments or offspring? Female sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) trade off carotenoids between spines and eggs.

@article{Nordeide2006OrnamentsOO,
  title={Ornaments or offspring? Female sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.) trade off carotenoids between spines and eggs.},
  author={Jarle T Nordeide and Geir Rudolfsen and Einar Skarstad Egeland},
  journal={Journal of evolutionary biology},
  year={2006},
  volume={19 2},
  pages={431-9}
}
Hypotheses and models to explain female ornaments often assume that the elaborated traits are condition dependent; nevertheless, few empirical studies have addressed this topic. We studied a population of three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in which the females have conspicuous, carotenoid-based red coloration to their pelvic spines. The red coloration seems not to be condition dependent, as coloration is negatively associated with age and body length and not associated with… CONTINUE READING