Isolation and Identification of Acholeplasma sp. from the Mud Crab, Scylla serrata
We report the establishment of a phylogenetic relationship between the sterol-nonrequiring mycoplasmas (Acholeplasma species) and streptococci. Three specific antisera prepared against purified Streptococcus faecalis fructose diphosphate aldolase and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and Pediococcus cerevisiae glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were used for comparative enzyme immunological studies; the Ouchterlony double-diffusion technique and the quantitative microcomplement fixation procedure were employed. The reactions obtained provide evidence showing that all seven ACholeplasma species studied (A. laidlawii, A. granularum, A. modicum, A. oculi, A. axanthum. A. hippikon, and A. equifetale) are phylogenetically related to streptococci and that they evolved from streptococci. The data strongly suggest that the acholeplasmas comprise a distinct evolutionary group that has diverged from streptococci belonging to Lancefield group D or N. No reactions were observed between these enzyme antisera and cell extracts from six fermentative Mycoplasma species. These results support the view that mycoplasmas are derived from various bacteria.