Origins of peaks of graphitic and pyrrolic nitrogen in N1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of carbon materials: quaternary nitrogen, tertiary amine, or secondary amine?

@article{Kato2021OriginsOP,
  title={Origins of peaks of graphitic and pyrrolic nitrogen in N1s X-ray photoelectron spectra of carbon materials: quaternary nitrogen, tertiary amine, or secondary amine?},
  author={Tomofumi Kato and Yasuhiro Yamada and Yasushi Nishikawa and Toshiya Otomo and Hayato Sato and Satoshi Sato},
  journal={Journal of Materials Science},
  year={2021},
  volume={56},
  pages={15798 - 15811}
}
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is among the most powerful techniques to analyse structures of nitrogen-doped carbon materials. However, reported assignments of (1) graphitic nitrogen (N)/substitutional N, quaternary N (Q–N), or tertiary amine (T–N) and (2) pyrrolic N/secondary amine or T–N are questionable. Most reports assign peaks at ca. 401 eV as Q–N or graphitic N, whereas raw materials in most of those works contain neither counter anion nor halogen. Besides, the peak at ca. 400 eV… 
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