Origins of building blocks of life: A review

  title={Origins of building blocks of life: A review},
  author={Norio Kitadai and Shigenori Maruyama},
  journal={Geoscience Frontiers},

The Birth of Life

  • R. Ligrone
  • Biology
    Biological Innovations that Built the World
  • 2019
Simulation experiments show that the synthesis of simple organic molecules from CO2 and H2 and of peptides from free amino acids is thermodynamically favoured under hydrothermal vent conditions, and DNA replaced RNA as a more stable repository of genetic information at a very early stage of evolution.

Systems Chemistry in the Chemical Origins of Life: The 18 Camel Paradigm

This personal review describes how the research program, which was once driven by the reductionist-linear approaches, has been increasingly influenced by the principles and paradigms of Systems Chemistry, leading to a “18th camel paradigm” in the research.

Prebiotic chemical refugia: multifaceted scenario for the formation of biomolecules in primitive Earth

A theoretical solution for the origin of biomolecules at specific sites named “Prebiotic Chemical Refugia” is provided, understood as a geographic site in prebiotic Earth on which certain chemical elements were accumulated in higher proportion than expected, facilitating the production of basic building blocks for biomolecule.

Chemistry of Abiotic Nucleotide Synthesis.

This review provides a background and up-to-date progress that will allow the reader to judge where the field stands currently and what remains to be achieved, and concludes with a cautionary note about coming to conclusions about whether the problem of chemistry of prebiotic nucleotide synthesis has been solved.

Coenzymes and Their Role in the Evolution of Life

P plausible hypotheses on the prebiotic formation of key elements within selected extant coenzymes are discussed, which suggest that coenzyme origin may have dramatically broadened early protometabolic networks and the catalytic scope of RNA during the evolution of life.

Nonenzymatic Metabolic Reactions and Life's Origins.

This review discusses metabolic pathways of relevance to the origin of life in a manner accessible to chemists, and summarizes experiments suggesting several pathways might have their roots in prebiotic chemistry.

When Did Life Likely Emerge on Earth in an RNA‐First Process?

The widespread presence of ribonucleic acid (RNA) catalysts and cofactors in Earth's biosphere today suggests that RNA was the first biopolymer to support Darwinian evolution. However, most

Investigating Prebiotic Protocells for a Comprehensive Understanding of the Origins of Life: A Prebiotic Systems Chemistry Perspective †

The aim of this review is to provide an overview of relevant concept in prebiotic protocell research.

A continuous reaction network that produces RNA precursors

An experimental model reaction network is demonstrated that generates a number of compounds that can lead to RNA synthesis in a single mixture starting from simple organic and inorganic feedstocks.



How life began on Earth: a status report

Chemical evolution toward the origin of life

It is shown that amino acids and peptides can be easily formed in a realistic primordial scenario and that these biomolecules can start chemical evolution without the help of RNA.

The origins of cellular life.

The integration of a dynamic fatty-acid compartment with robust, generalized genetic polymer replication would yield a laboratory model of a protocell with the potential for classical Darwinian biological evolution, and may help to evaluate potential pathways for the emergence of life on the early Earth.

Did life originate from a global chemical reactor?

It is concluded that no single environmental setting can offer enough chemical and physical diversity for life to originate and any plausible model for the origin of life must acknowledge the geological complexity and diversity of the Hadean Earth.

Early bioenergetic evolution

This paper outlines an energetically feasible path from a particular inorganic setting for the origin of life to the first free-living cells, and focuses on the main evolutionary transitions in early bioenergetic evolution.

Controversies on the origin of life.

  • J. Peretó
  • Physics
    International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
  • 2005
The origin of life was a process initiated within ecologically interconnected autonomous compartments that evolved into cells with hereditary and true Darwinian evolutionary capabilities, in other words, the individual existence of life preceded its historical-collective dimension.

Behaviour of RNA under hydrothermal conditions and the origins of life

  • K. Kawamura
  • Biology
    International Journal of Astrobiology
  • 2004
Since enzymes presently mediate most biological reactions, evaluation of the accumulation of RNA should be based on the comparison between the enzymatic and non-enzymatic reaction rates, which has been attempted and suggests that an RNA world entirely consisting of RNA molecules is unlikely.

Elements of metabolic evolution.

Reductive carbon fixation in a volcanic hydrothermal setting is explored, driven by the chemical potential of quenched volcanic fluids for converting volcanic C1 compounds into organic products by transition-metal catalysts, to demonstrate the chemical possibility of metabolic evolution through rate-promotion of one synthetic reaction by the products of another.

Before enzymes and templates: theory of surface metabolism.

It is proposed here that, at an early stage of evolution, there are precursor organisms drastically different from anything the authors know, and life at this early stage is autotrophic and consists of an autocatalytic metabolism confined to an essentially twodimensional monomolecular organic layer.