Origins and functional evolution of Y chromosomes across mammals

@article{Cortez2014OriginsAF,
  title={Origins and functional evolution of Y chromosomes across mammals},
  author={Diego Cortez and Ray Marin and Deborah Toledo-Flores and Laure Froidevaux and Ang{\'e}lica Liechti and Paul D. Waters and Frank Gr{\"u}tzner and Henrik Kaessmann},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2014},
  volume={508},
  pages={488-493}
}
Y chromosomes underlie sex determination in mammals, but their repeat-rich nature has hampered sequencing and associated evolutionary studies. Here we trace Y evolution across 15 representative mammals on the basis of high-throughput genome and transcriptome sequencing. We uncover three independent sex chromosome originations in mammals and birds (the outgroup). The original placental and marsupial (therian) Y, containing the sex-determining gene SRY, emerged in the therian ancestor… 

Weird mammals provide insights into the evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes and dosage compensation

Comparative gene mapping reveals the process of sex chromosome evolution from their inception 190 MYA to their inevitable end (the Y has disappeared in two rodent lineages), and can be exploited to deduce how mammalian sex chromosomes and epigenetic silencing evolved.

Convergent evolution of Y chromosome gene content in flies

Despite almost no overlap in Y-linked gene content in different species with independently formed sex-chromosomes, it is found that Y- linked genes have evolved convergent gene functions associated with testis expression, suggesting male-specific selection appears as a dominant force shaping gene-content evolution of Y-chromOSomes across fly species.

Convergent origination of a Drosophila-like dosage compensation mechanism in a reptile lineage.

This work unveils the convergent emergence of a Drosophila-like dosage compensation mechanism in an ancient reptilian sex chromosome system and highlights that the evolutionary pressures imposed by sex chromosome dosage reductions in different amniotes were resolved in fundamentally different ways.

Did sex chromosome turnover promote divergence of the major mammal groups?

  • J. Graves
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 2016
It is proposed that the evolution of therian mammals was precipitated by evolution of a male‐determining SRY gene, defining a novel XY sex chromosome pair, and interposing a reproductive barrier with the ancestral population of synapsid reptiles 190 million years ago (MYA).

Repeated sex chromosome evolution in vertebrates supported by expanded avian sex chromosomes

Comparative genomics of a bird clade where multiple autosome–sex chromosome fusions appear to have formed expanded sex chromosomes provides insights into and support for repeated evolution of sex chromosomes in vertebrates is provided.

Evolutionary conservation of Y Chromosome ampliconic gene families despite extensive structural variation

The analysis of ampliconic gene evolution unveils a complex pattern of long-term gene content stability despite extensive structural variation on a nonrecombining background.

Assembly of a young vertebrate Y chromosome reveals convergent signatures of sex chromosome evolution

The assembly of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) Y chromosome is described and an excellent candidate for the master sex-determination gene is reported: a translocated copy of Amh (Amhy).

Sequence and structural diversity of mouse Y chromosomes

The results support the hypothesis that the mouse sex chromosomes are engaged in ongoing intragenomic conflict and reduction in sex-linked diversity is incompatible with neutral demographic processes alone, but is consistent with recent positive selection on genes active during spermatogenesis.

Extinction of chromosomes due to specialization is a universal occurrence

The evolution of mammalian orthologs is examined to determine if the selective forces that led to the degeneration of the Y chromosome are unique in the genome, and the results of the study suggest these forces are not exclusive to the Y chromosomes.

The Gene Content of Mammalian and Avian Sex Chromosomes

Recent, high-quality, genomic sequencing of sex chromosomes allows us to trace the evolutionary history of the mammalian X and Y chromosomes and avian Z and W chromosomes, and examine how evolution has remodelled their gene content.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 92 REFERENCES

Chromosomal Gene Movements Reflect the Recent Origin and Biology of Therian Sex Chromosomes

This study substantiates and extends the hypothesis that autosomal retrogenes functionally compensate for the silencing of their X-linked housekeeping parental genes during, but also after, male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), and provides strong independent support for the recent notion that the authors' sex chromosomes emerged not in the common ancestor of all mammals, but rather in the therian ancestor, and therefore are much younger than previously thought.

Comparative analysis of mammalian Y chromosomes illuminates ancestral structure and lineage-specific evolution

This work presents the first MSY (male-specific region of the Y chromosome) sequences from two carnivores, the domestic dog and cat, and identifies multiple conserved noncoding elements that potentially regulate eutherian MSY genes.

Sex-Specific Adaptation Drives Early Sex Chromosome Evolution in Drosophila

The sex chromosomes of Drosophila miranda are studied, showing that the response to sex-specific selection can shift at different stages of X differentiation, resulting in masculinization or demasculinization of the X-chromosomal gene content.

Evolution and Survival on Eutherian Sex Chromosomes

It is discovered that genes on the X and Y acquired distinct evolutionary rates immediately following the suppression of recombination between the two sex chromosomes, and that unique mRNA/protein expression patterns and functions acquired by Y (versus X) gametologs likely contributed to their retention.

Chimpanzee and human Y chromosomes are remarkably divergent in structure and gene content

It is suggested that the extraordinary divergence of the chimpanzee and human MSYs was driven by four synergistic factors: the prominent role of the MSY in sperm production, ‘genetic hitchhiking’ effects in the absence of meiotic crossing over, frequent ectopic recombination within theMSY, and species differences in mating behaviour.

The evolution of gene expression levels in mammalian organs

It is shown that the rate of gene expression evolution varies among organs, lineages and chromosomes, owing to differences in selective pressures: transcriptome change was slow in nervous tissues and rapid in testes, slower in rodents than in apes and monotremes, and rapid for the X chromosome right after its formation.

Y-chromosome evolution: emerging insights into processes of Y-chromosome degeneration

Comparison of young and old Y chromosomes has given further insights into the evolutionary and molecular forces triggering Y-chromosome degeneration and into the Darwinian destiny of the Y chromosome.

No Evidence for a Second Evolutionary Stratum during the Early Evolution of Mammalian Sex Chromosomes

Phylogenetic analyses and estimated divergence time of 7 pairs of marsupial gametologs reveal that they all differentiated at the same time in the therian ancestor, and provides strong evidence for gene conversion that occurred in the 3′ region of the eutherian stratum 2 genes.

Sequencing of rhesus macaque Y chromosome clarifies origins and evolution of the DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) genes

It is reported that DAZ arrived on the Y chromosome about 38 million years ago via the transposition of at least 1.1 megabases of autosomal DNA, but all five genes were subsequently lost through mutation or deletion.
...