Origins and evolution of the Antarctic biota: an introduction

  title={Origins and evolution of the Antarctic biota: an introduction},
  author={J. Alistair Crame},
  journal={Geological Society, London, Special Publications},
  pages={1 - 8}
  • J. Crame
  • Published 1989
  • Environmental Science, Geology, Geography
  • Geological Society, London, Special Publications
Within the last 25 years there has been a dramatic increase in our knowledge of the fossil record of Antarctica. Improved access to the remotest parts of the continent, the advent of offshore drilling and intensive study of early expedition collections have all led to the accumulation of a vast amount of data that stretches back nearly 600 Ma to the beginning of the Cambrian period. No longer can Antarctica be dismissed from our view of the history of life on earth simply because so little is… 
Evolutionary history of the polar regions
The accumulation of relict taxa in high latitude regions and extra‐tropical originations of major taxa are very real phenomena that defy simple explanation; it could be that they are generated by long‐term shifts in major clades; a sort of latitudinal equivalent to onshore‐offshore radiations in the marine realm.
A review of early gadiform evolution and diversification: first record of a rattail fish skull (Gadiformes, Macrouridae) from the Eocene of Antarctica, with otoliths preserved in situ
The fossil record of gadiforms in general and macrouroids in particular indicates that the origin of both was in shallow shelf environments but with adaptations to deep-water settings early in their evolution, which gave rise to their modern taxonomic diversity and global distribution.
Pre-Gondwanan-breakup origin of Beauprea (Proteaceae) explains its historical presence in New Caledonia and New Zealand
It is shown that the presence of Beauprea through transoceanic dispersal is implausible, which means that neither New Caledonia nor New Zealand has been entirely submerged since the Upper Cretaceous; thus, possible vicariance and allopatry must be taken into account when considering the high levels of endemism and species richness of these island groups.
Campanian–Maastrichtian (Cretaceous) stratigraphy of the James Ross Island area, Antarctica
One of the most important outcrops of uppermost Cretaceous (Campanian–Maastrichtian) sedimentary rocks in the southern high latitudes occurs within the James Ross Island group, northeastern Antarctic
Systematics, biostratigraphy and biogeography of brachiopods and other fossils from the middle Cambrian Nelson Limestone, Antarctica
Abstract An assemblage dominated by acrotretid brachiopods (Prototreta millsi Brock and Percival, 2006) is described from the Nelson Limestone of the Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica. The
Mosasauroids from Gondwanan Continents
The geographic and temporal patterns of distribution shown here are crucial for understanding the evolution of aquatic squamates not only in Gondwana but also globally.
Comment on “Eocene Fagaceae from Patagonia and Gondwanan legacy in Asian rainforests”
It is claimed that Castanopsis evolved in the Southern Hemisphere from where it spread to its modern distribution in Southeast Asia, but extensive paleobotanical records of Antarctica and Australia lack evidence of any Fagaceae, and molecular patterns indicate shared biogeographic histories of castanopsis, Castanea, Lithocarpus, and Quercus subgenus Cerris, making the southern route unlikely.
New Antarctic clawed lobster species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Nephropidae) from the Upper Cretaceous of James Ross Island
A new species of nephropid lobster, Hoploparia echinata sp. nov., from the James Ross Island in the Antarctic Peninsula is here described and illustrated. The material was collected in the Santa
Systematics of Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae) based on rDNA spacer sequences (ITS): taxonomic congruence with morphology and plastid sequences.
  • P. Manos
  • Biology
    American journal of botany
  • 1997
Compared to previous thought, the distribution of extant Nothofagus is informative on the area relationships of the Southern Hemisphere, once precise phylogenetic relationships are placed in the context of fossil data.
Life under extreme conditions: aspects of evolutionary adaptation to temperature in crustacean proteases
Decisive steps of thermal acclimation occurred in the lower temperature range, resulting in pronounced cold adaptation of the Antarctic benthic species; this becomes evident from lowered activation energies of the trypsin-like proteases and in comparatively high enzymic activities at 0°C.


Polar origins of marine invertebrate faunas
  • J. Crame
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1986
A pervasive view among many paleontologists is that the tropics have for a long time acted as the major evolutionary and dispersal center in both the marine and terrestrial realns. Following the
The geological history of New Zealand and its life
The narrow-gutted but lofty archipelago of New Zealand, consisting of two large and many smaller islands, rises from a system of relatively shallow submarine rises and plateaux between the South West
Cenozoic evolution of Antarctic glaciation the Circum-Antarctic Ocean and their impact on global paleoceanography
Deep-sea drilling in the Antarctic region (Deep-Sea Drilling Project legs 28, 29, 35, and 36) has provided many new data about the development of circum-Antarctic circulation and the closely related
The distribution of the present-day, shallow-water benthic faunas of the southern circum- Pacific in large part, is the result of a series of environmental perturbations and changes in geography
A mid-late devonian flora from the Ruppert Coast, Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica
Abstract Plant fossils, including Drepanophycus schopji sp. nov. Mildenhall, cf. Haplostigma irregulare (Schwarz) Seward, an indeterminate lycopodiaceous axis resembling Protolepidodendron, and
Seasonality in the Antarctic marine environment
Biogeography of Devonian vertebrates
Five faunal provinces based on vertebrates are proposed for Early Devonian time, as follows: a cephalaspid province (Euramerica), an amphiaspid province (Siberia), a tannuaspid province (Tuva); a
Cenozoic High Latitude Heterochroneity of Southern Hemisphere Marine Faunas
Observations of Antarctic marine invertebrates corroborate those recently made about terrestrial mammals and plants in the Arctic.
Gondwana facies started when Gondwanaland merged in Pangea
The late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic Gondwana sequence of peninsular India and its equivalents in the present southern continents were deposited during the merging of the continents in Pangea and
Devonian palynomorphs from the basal Beacon Supergroup of South Victoria Land, Antarctica (Note)
Abstract Poorly preserved palynomorphs have been recovered from a carbonaceous siltstone in the Terra Cotta Siltstone at Table Mountain, south Victoria Land, Antarctica. They indicate a probable