Origination, extinction, and mass depletions of marine diversity

  title={Origination, extinction, and mass depletions of marine diversity},
  author={Richard K. Bambach and Andrew H. Knoll and Steve C. Wang},
Abstract In post-Cambrian time, five events—the end-Ordovician, end-Frasnian in the Late Devonian, end-Permian, end-Triassic, and end-Cretaceous—are commonly grouped as the “big five” global intervals of mass extinction. Plotted by magnitude, extinction intensities for all Phanerozoic substages show a continuous distribution, with the five traditionally recognized mass extinctions located in the upper tail. Plotted by time, however, proportional extinctions clearly divide the Phanerozoic Eon… 

Phanerozoic Mass Extinctions and Indian Stratigraphic Records

The paper discusses important changes in faunal and floral diversity during the Phanerozoic Eon. These are represented by the ‘big five’ mass extinctions, viz. end-Ordovician, Frasnian-Famennian

The Missing Mass Extinction at the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary

The Late Triassic was a prolonged episode characterized by high rates of biotic turnover and discrete extinction events due to elevated extinction rates for some biotic groups and low origination

Quantifying the process and abruptness of the end-Permian mass extinction

Abstract Studies of the end-Permian mass extinction have suggested a variety of patterns from a single catastrophic event to multiple phases. But most of these analyses have been based on fossil

Extinction: End‐Triassic Mass Extinction

One of the five greatest mass extinction events in Earth's history occurred at the end of the Triassic, c. 200 million years ago. This event ultimately eliminated conodonts and nearly annihilated

End-Triassic nonmarine biotic events

A palaeobotanical perspective on the great end-Permian biotic crisis

Abstract Mass extinctions are crucial to understanding changes in biodiversity through time. However, it is still disputed whether extinction dynamics in the marine and terrestrial biotas followed

Persistent oceanic anoxia and elevated extinction rates separate the Cambrian and Ordovician radiations

Recurrent mass extinction events (at “biomere”—a biostratigraphic unit—boundaries) characterize the middle Cambrian to Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) time interval that is between the major Cambrian

The end-Guadalupian (259.8 Ma) biodiversity crisis: the sixth major mass extinction?

ABSTRACT The modern loss of species diversity has been labelled the ‘sixth extinction’ subsequent to the five major mass extinctions widely recognised in the Phanerozoic geologic record – the

Bolide impact triggered the Late Triassic extinction event in equatorial Panthalassa

It is shown that two palaeoenvironmental events occurred during the initial phase of the radiolarian extinction interval: a post-impact shutdown of primary and biogenic silica production within a time span of 104–105 yr, and a sustained reduction in the sinking flux of Radiolarian silica for ~0.3 Myr after the impact.



Mass extinctions and sea-level changes

  • A. Hallam
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 1999

Large igneous provinces and mass extinctions

The Late Ordovician Mass Extinction

▪ Abstract Near the end of the Late Ordovician, in the first of five mass extinctions in the Phanerozoic, about 85% of marine species died. The cause was a brief glacial interval that produced two

The Late Devonian extinction event: evidence for abrupt ecosystem collapse

  • G. R. Mcghee
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 1988
The Late Devonian extinction event was not geologically “instantaneous,” in that extinctions during the epoch are not concentrated into a single sharp pulse at the end of the Frasnian. Extinction

How catastrophic was the end-Triassic mass extinction?

  • A. Hallam
  • Environmental Science, Geography
  • 2002
A review of marine and terrestrial animal and plant fossils fails to reveal convincing evidence of a global catastrophe at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, although this time marked the final

Timing the end-Triassic mass extinction: First on land, then in the sea?

The end-Triassic marks one of the five biggest mass extinctions, but current geologic time scales are inadequate for understanding its dynamics. A tuff layer in marine sedimentary rocks encompassing

Anoxia as the cause of the mid-Early Cambrian (Botomian) extinction event

New and revised Early Cambrian biostratigraphic data allow a quantitative analysis of changes in biotic diversity and extinction rate. The mid-Early Cambrian extinction can now be resolved into two

A Double Mass Extinction at the End of the Paleozoic Era

Three tests based on fossil data indicate that high rates of extinction recorded in the penultimate (Guadalupian) stage of the Paleozoic era are not artifacts of a poor fossil record. Instead, they

Global Ordovician faunal transitions in the marine benthos: proximate causes

Abstract During the Ordovician Radiation, domination of benthic marine communities shifted away from trilobites, toward articulate brachiopods, and, to a lesser degree, toward bivalves and