Fetal cardiomyopathy--in utero evaluation and clinical significance.
Fetal cardiomyopathies (CM) are rare diseases with an incidence of about 6-11% of all fetal cardiac diseases. Although the prenatal diagnosis of most fetal structural heart defects and dysrhythmias has been described previously, there is a paucity of information about CM in prenatal life (1). There are few evidences and very few information about the natural history before, during and after the birth of the fetuses affected by these diseases.Fetal cardiomyopathies can be analysed by studying atrial and ventricular contraction using B and M-mode echocardiography. A haemodynamic evaluation can be performed by Doppler mode. In this review we reported the typical findings of dilatative cardiomiopathy, of hypertrophic cardiomiopathy and of restrictive cardiomiopathy in fetuses. The prognosis is poor, except for the Hypertrophic cardiomiopathy associated with hyperglycaemia.