Origin of the Genetic Code

  title={Origin of the Genetic Code},
  author={Francis H. C. Crick},
  • F. Crick
  • Published 14 January 1967
  • Biology
  • Nature

The origin of the genetic code.

  • B. Thomas
  • Biology
    Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • 1970

The significance of redundancy in the genetic code.

  • M. Dufton
  • Biology
    Journal of theoretical biology
  • 1983

A possible step in the origin of the genetic code.

It is suggested that the earliest coding polynucleotides contained a high proportion of alternating sequences of purines and pyrimidines, and that these sequences coded for polypeptides in which

Evolutionary changes in the genetic code

The genetic code has been influenced by directional mutation pressure affecting the base composition of DNA, sometimes in the direction of increased GC content and at other times, in the direction of

[Origin and evolution of the genetic code].

We propose a quantitative model which suggests that the present genetic code appeared under the influence of mutations, while optimizing its own resistance against their effects. Its evolution was

The puzzling origin of the genetic code.

Is there a higher level genetic code that directs evolution?

  • L. Caporale
  • Biology
    Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
  • 2004
Flexibility in the genetic code allows information encoding structural, and therefore functional, properties of RNA and DNA to be transmitted simultaneously by a protein-coding sequence of DNA.

The origin of the genetic code

A new approach to the origin of the genetic code is proposed based on some regularities in the nucleotide distribution pattern of the code, which proposes a selective mechanism worked among the protobionts so that less frequent nucleotides became associated with more abundant amino acids in the primordial conditions, thus leading to the present codon catalogue.

The path to the genetic code.

Evolution and multilevel optimization of the genetic code.

The specific 64-to-20 mapping found in the genetic code may have been optimized for permitting protein-coding regions to carry this extra information and it is suggested that this property may have evolved as a side benefit of selection to minimize the negative effects of frameshift errors.



Origin of the Genetic Code

A molecular model of the interaction between mononucleotides and polyamino-acids predicts the glycine codon GGG, and suggests RNA evolved before DNA.

Amber Suppression: a Nucleotide Change in the Anticodon of a Tyrosine Transfer RNA

In certain mutants a single base change alters the meaning of a messenger codon in such a way that, instead of spelling out an amino-acid, it spells out chain termination. Mutants in a quite

Nucleotide Sequence of a Yeast Tyrosine Transfer RNA

The evidence indicates that the sequence containing guanosine, pseudouridine, and adenosine in the middle of the polynucleotide chain is the anticodon.

Triplet Nucleotide–Amino-acid Pairing; a Stereo-chemical Basis for the Division between Protein and Non-protein Amino-acids

This paper proposes a rather different possible relationship between nucleotide triplets and amino-acids which has emerged as a result of preliminary investigations aimed at understanding the usual exclusion and the occasional intrusion of the so-called non-protein amino-ACids into protein.

An Error in Model Building

The author corresponded with Dr. R. Pelc and he was kind enough to show him some of their models, and it was not possible to tell from their very brief descriptions whether they were stereochemically acceptable.

Specificity of the Stereochemical Relationship Between Ribonucleic Acid-Triplets and Amino-Acids

Specificity of the Stereochemical Relationship Between Ribonucleic Acid-Triplets and Amino-Acids is determined and this relationship appears to be related to the “love-hate” relationship between DNA and RNA.

Molecules and evolution

Evolving Genes and Proteins.

Genetic Code: Aspects of Organization

The pattern of organization of the genetic code decreases to a minimum the phenotypic effects of mutation and of base-pairing errors in protein synthesis and has determined the fitness of the present code.