Origin of oort cloud comets in the interstellar space

  title={Origin of oort cloud comets in the interstellar space},
  author={Mauri Valtonen and Jiaqing Zheng and Seppo Mikkola},
  journal={Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy},
Comets must form a major part of the interstellar medium. The solar system provides a flux of comets into the interstellar space and there is no reason to suspect that many other stars and their surrounding cometary systems would not make a similar contribution. Occasionally interstellar comets must pass through the inner solar system, but Whipple (1975) considers it unlikely that such a comet is among the known cases of apparently hyperbolic comets. Even so the upper limit for the density of… 
Orbits of short period comets captured from the Oort cloud
Oort cloud comets occasionally obtain orbits which take them through the planetary region. The perturbations by the planets are likely to change the orbit of the comet. We model this process by using
Long‐term evolution of Oort Cloud comets: capture of comets
ABSTRA C T We test different possibilities for the origin of short-period comets captured from the Oort Cloud. We use an efficient Monte Carlo simulation method that takes into account
The dilemma of the new-comet flux
The question of the constancy of the flux rate of “new” comets from the Oort cloud is critical in studies of the origin of comets. The large numbers may be explained by our being in a “comet shower”
Monte Carlo Simulations of Oort Cloud Comets: the Influence of Mantle Blow-off on the Inclination Distribution of Jupiter Family
We have developed an efficient Monte Carlo method by which we can evaluate the evolution of comets. There are many poorly known evolutional parameters, and we have investigated the influence of these
Monte Carlo Simulations of Comet Capture from the Oort Cloud
There is a very large number of small bodies in the Solar System and their orbits are varied and complicated. Some types of orbits and events are so rare that they occur in numerical simulations only
Long‐term evolution of Oort Cloud comets: methods and comparisons
Two long-term simulation methods for cometary orbits, a Monte Carlo method and a direct integration method, are compared with each other. The comparison is done in seven inclination and perihelion
Oort cloud Ecology
Jan Hendrik Oort hypothesized, based on a spike in the reciprocal orbital separation at 1/a < ∼ 10−4 au−1, the existence of a distant cloud of cometary objects that orbit the Sun. The Oort cloud is
Orbital Changes in Planet-Comet Encounters
We concentrate on the traditional model of capture from the Oort Cloud. We improve the method of calculation of captured comet populations by combining large numbers of accurate orbit calculations
Three-body Problem
1. Astrophysics and three-body problem 2. Newtonian mechanics 3. Two-body problem 4. Hamiltonian mechanics 5. The planar restricted circular three body problem and other special cases 6. Three-body


Capture of comets during the evolution of a star cluster and the origin of the Oort Cloud
It is generally assumed that the Solar System is surrounded by a swarm of comets, the so-called Oort Cloud, which contains approximately 1011 members. The observed comets belong to a small subsection
Comet showers and the steady-state infall of comets from the Oort cloud
The appearance of an inner edge to the Oort comet cloud at a semimajor axis of a = (1--2) x 10/sup 4/ AU is an observational artifact. Stellar perturbations are frequent enough and strong enough to
Do comets play a role in galactic chemistry and gamma-ray bursts
This paper explores the plausibility of the assumption that enough material from interstellar space is locked up in comets to reduce significantly the apparent growth rate of 'heavy' elements (mass
A model of the galactic tidal interaction with the Oort comet cloud
We consider a model of the in situ Oort cloud which is isotropic with a random distrihution of perihelia directions and angular momenta. The energy distribution adopted has a continuous range of
Planet X and the origins of the shower and steady state flux of short-period comets
Abstract In the planet X model periodic comet showers are associated with passages of the planet's perihelion and aphelion points through a primordial disk of comets believed to lie beyond the orbit
Extinction of species by periodic comet showers
A 26-Myr periodicity has recently been seen in the fossil record of extinction in the geological past1. At least two of these extinctions are known to be associated with the impact on the Earth of a
Origin Of Short-Period Comets
Reasons for interest in the origin of short-period comets and the difficulties of computing their long-term dynamcal evolution are reviewed. The relative advantages of a source region in an extended
Cometary evidence for a solar companion
It is demonstrated that a large anisotropy exists in a set of 126 cometary orbits that is manifested in a plane almost perpendicular to the ecliptic. This anisotropy would dissipate by orbital
Terrestrial mass extinctions, cometary impacts and the Sun's motion perpendicular to the galactic plane
Episodes of mass extinctions on the Earth are now strongly suspected to be cyclical1. We report here that our analysis of the data of Raup and Sepkoski1 suggests that the dominant cyclicity in major
Periodic comet showers and planet X
The discovery1 that Pluto's mass is insufficient to explain the discrepancies in the motions of the outer planets has led to the prediction of a tenth planet (planet X) of mass ∼1–5 M⊕ beyond the