Origin of Whales from Early Artiodactyls: Hands and Feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan

  title={Origin of Whales from Early Artiodactyls: Hands and Feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan},
  author={Philip D. Gingerich and Munir ul Haq and Iyad S. Zalmout and Intizar Hussain Khan and Muhammad Sadiq Malkani},
  pages={2239 - 2242}
Partial skeletons of two new fossil whales, Artiocetus clavis and Rodhocetus balochistanensis, are among the oldest known protocetid archaeocetes. These came from early Lutetian age (47 million years ago) strata in eastern Balochistan Province, Pakistan. Both have an astragalus and cuboid in the ankle with characteristics diagnostic of artiodactyls; R. balochistanensis has virtually complete fore- and hind limbs. The new skeletons are important in augmenting the diversity of early Protocetidae… 

Enigmatic ungulate-like mammals from the Eocene of Central Asia

A new mammal family, Olseniidae, is proposed based on a complete foot skeleton of cf. Olsenia sp. from the Eocene Toru Ajgyr locality in Kyrgyzstan and an astragalus of Olsenia mira from the Eocene

Early Evolution of Whales A Century of Research in Egypt

Living whales are fully aquatic and belong to two suborders of Cetacea: Mysticeti (baleen whales) and Odontoceti (toothed whales). Both of these modern suborders appeared when Earth changed from a

Distinctive osteology of distal flipper bones of tropical bottlenose whales, Indopacetus pacificus, from Taiwan: Mother and calf, calf with polydactyly

Beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) are relatively large marine mammals, although they are among the least known cetaceans, and live almost exclusively in far offshore deep waters where they spend relatively little time at the surface.

Fossils explained 46: Ancient toothed whales

  • D. Naish
  • Geography, Environmental Science
  • 2004
Archaeocetes (‘ancient whales’) were amphibious and aquatic mammals that inhabited the estuaries, seas and oceans of the Eocene. Evolving from primitive hoofed mammals, most probably during the

New Species of Protosiren (Mammalia, Sirenia) from the Early Middle Eocene of Balochistan (Pakistan)

Protosiren eothene is the oldest and smallest species of Protosiren known to date and retains synovial articulations on rib heads, and it is about 10-12% smaller in linear dimensions than P. fraasi from the early middle Eocene of Egypt.

From Land to Water: the Origin of Whales, Dolphins, and Porpoises

This work focuses on the evolution of cetacean organ systems, as these document the transition from land to water in detail.

New Protocetid Whale from the Middle Eocene of Pakistan: Birth on Land, Precocial Development, and Sexual Dimorphism

Discovery of a near-term fetus positioned for head-first delivery provides important evidence that early protocetid whales gave birth on land and corroborates previous ideas that protocETids were amphibious.

A new species of mesonychian mammal from the lower Eocene of Mongolia and its phylogenetic relationships

Autapomorphies of this new species are short face, absence of diastemata between the lower premolars (except between p1 and p2), m3 metaconid subequal to protoconid, and foramen for superior ramus of stapedial artery entirely within the petrosal.



Hind Limbs of Eocene Basilosaurus: Evidence of Feet in Whales

New specimens of middle Eocene Basilosaurus isis from Egypt include the first functional pelvic limb and foot bones known in Cetacea. These are important in corroborating the intermediate

Skeleton of Diacodexis, Oldest Known Artiodactyl

Its slender, elongate limb elements indicate that Diacodexis was highly cursorial and closer in postcranial adaptations to tragulids and other primitive ruminants than to living or extinct nonruminant artiodactyls.

On the origin of the order Artiodactyla.

  • K. Rose
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1996
A middle Paleocene specimen of a small arctocyonid (?Chriacus) reported here is much more similar to the oldest artiodactyl, Diacodexis, in the derived condition of the hindlimb, reviving the possibility that Artiodactsyla evolved from an arctocryonid.

Origin of Whales in Epicontinental Remnant Seas: New Evidence from the Early Eocene of Pakistan

Discovery of Pakicetus strengthens earlier inferences that whales originated from terrestrial carnivorous mammals and suggests that whales made a gradual transition from land to sea in the early Eocene, spending progressively more time feeding on planktivorous fishes in shallow seas and embayments associated with tectonic closure of eastern Tethys.

New whale from the Eocene of Pakistan and the origin of cetacean swimming

This is the oldest fossil whale described from deep-neritic shelf deposits, and it shows that tail swimming evolved early in the history of cetaceans.

A new Eocene archaeocete (Mammalia, Cetacea) from India and the time of origin of whales.

  • S. BajpaiP. Gingerich
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1998
Himalayacetus subathuensis is a new pakicetid archaeocete from the Subathu Formation of northern India that has a small mandibular canal and Pakicetus-like molar teeth suggesting that it fed on fish.

Analyses of mitochondrial genomes strongly support a hippopotamus-whale clade

  • B. UrsingÚ. Árnason
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 1998
The complete mitochondrial genome of the hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius, is sequenced and it is identified as the artiodactyl sister group of the cetaceans, thereby making both Artiodactola and the suborder Suiformes paraphyletic.

The Evolutionary History of Whales and Dolphins

Cetaceans-the whales, dolphins, and porpoises-are the taxonomically most diverse clade of aquatic mammals, with a fossil record going back at least to Middle Eocene time (52 Ma-millions of years

Fossil Evidence for the Origin of Aquatic Locomotion in Archaeocete Whales

The fossil indicates that archaic whales swam by undulating their vertebral column, thus forcing their feet up and down in a way similar to modern otters.

I. On the osteology of the hyopotamidæ

  • W. Kowalevsky
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London
  • 1873
The paper which I lay before the Society is an attempt to treat with sufficient osteological detail an extinct family of Ungulates which had an immense range of distribution and a great variety of