Origin of HIV type 1 in colonial French Equatorial Africa?

@article{Chitnis2000OriginOH,
  title={Origin of HIV type 1 in colonial French Equatorial Africa?},
  author={Arvind B. Chitnis and D. Terry Rawls and J. Suzanne Moore},
  journal={AIDS research and human retroviruses},
  year={2000},
  volume={16 1},
  pages={
          5-8
        }
}
Sociocultural factors during the postcolonial period have been implicated as paramount in generating conditions that promoted both the origin and subsequent epidemic spread of HIV-1 in Africa. We suggest, however, that the origin of the disease may lie in the interaction between colonial practices (e.g., labor camps, nonsterile vaccination campaigns) and traditional bushmeat hunting in French Equatorial Africa. Both the epidemiology of HIV-2 and the colonial history of West Africa appear more… 

Figures from this paper

Conflicting Views in Narratives on HIV Transmission via Medical Care

  • M. Vance
  • Political Science
    Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
  • 2019
TLDR
The value of alternative narratives in fostering a balanced view that is less stigmatizing on developing nations is focused on.

SOCIAL HISTORY, BIOLOGY, AND THE EMERGENCE OF HIV IN COLONIAL AFRICA*

Abstract This essay considers how historians of Africa can draw from and critically contribute to biomedical debates. Recent virological research has established that the HIV/AIDS pandemic began with

The epidemic emergence of HIV: what novel enabling factors were involved?

TLDR
It is suggested that if parenteral serial transmission was necessary for HIV adaptation, it had to be complemented by sexual transmission for HIV to reach epidemic potential.

Emergence of the HIV type 1 epidemic in the twentieth century: comparing hypotheses to evidence.

TLDR
The distribution of hepatitis C virus infections and the history of multiinjection treatment for trypanosomiasis in Central Africa suggest widespread parenteral transmission of blood-borne viruses during 1920-1940, coinciding in time and place with the early HIV epidemic.

Enhanced Heterosexual Transmission Hypothesis for the Origin of Pandemic HIV-1

TLDR
An Enhanced Heterosexual Transmission Hypothesis is proposed for the origin of HIV-1 M, featuring at the time and place of its origin a coincidence of favorable co-factors (ape hunting, social disruption, STDs, and mobility) for both cross-species transmission and heterosexual spread.

Male Circumcision and the Epidemic Emergence of HIV-2 in West Africa

TLDR
This survey reveals that, in the early 20th century, MC was far less common and geographically more variable than nowadays, and suggests HIV-2 only formed early substantial foci in cities with substantial uncircumcised populations.

High GUD Incidence in the Early 20th Century Created a Particularly Permissive Time Window for the Origin and Initial Spread of Epidemic HIV Strains

TLDR
The results suggest that intense GUD in promiscuous urban communities was the main factor driving HIV emergence, and that the early 20th century was particularly permissive for the emergence of HIV by heterosexual transmission.

The early spread and epidemic ignition of HIV-1 in human populations

TLDR
Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, it is shown that from the 1920s Kinshasa was the focus of early transmission and the source of pre-1960 pandemic viruses elsewhere.

Evolution and Diversity of HIV-1 in Africa – a Review

TLDR
This review highlights that current understanding of HIV distribution in Africa is incomplete and inadequately represents the diversity of the virus, and underscores the need for ongoing surveillance.

Past Present and Future Status of HIV-AIDS Pandemic Problem in World

TLDR
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has devastated families, communities and whole continents, and has seen the epidemic set back the development of countries by many decades, widen the gulf between rich and poor nations, and push already stigmatized groups closer to the margins of society.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 24 REFERENCES

HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections and AIDS in West Africa.

TLDR
Important epidemiologic questions concerning HIV-2 which await resolution are its incubation period for disease and its efficiency of transmission compared with HIV-1, and for public health purposes the two infections should be approached in the same fashion.

Smallpox inoculation in Africa

  • E. Herbert
  • History, Economics
    The Journal of African History
  • 1975
TLDR
Inoculation for smallpox seems to have been most extensively used in the Western and Central Sudan, Ethiopia and Southern Africa, where it provided some defence against smallpox in spite of the risks involved.

An African HIV-1 sequence from 1959 and implications for the origin of the epidemic

TLDR
Multiple phylogenetic analyses not only authenticate this case as the oldest known HIV-1 infection, but also place its viral sequence near the ancestral node of subtypes B and D in the major group, indicating that these HIV- 1 subtypes, and perhaps all major-group viruses, may have evolved from a single introduction into the African population not long before 1959.

Colonialism, Health and Illness in French Equatorial Africa, 1885-1935

TLDR
Although Green has been working in Mozambique for some time, it is clear that his research across Africa has been supplemented with stints in the Caribbean and Asia, precluding the possibility of developing in-depth knowledge of any one society or culture.

AFRICA

This chapter addresses the issue of social protection and welfare in Africa. Africa is a highly diversified continent characterized by different socio-economic performances. It comprises the more

Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes

TLDR
The genome of a new SIVcpz strain is sequenced and the subspecies identity of all known SIV cpz-infected chimpanzees is determined, by mitochondrial DNA analysis, and it is found that two chimpanzee subspecies in Africa harbour SIVCPz and that their respective viruses form two highly divergent (but subspecies-specific) phylogenetic lineages.

Disease in African history

TLDR
Although this book consists of medical history of medicine, thus providing little information on non-medical aspects, it will be a valuable source of information on the recent history of infectious diseases.

Genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2: evidence for distinct sequence subtypes with differences in virus biology

TLDR
The results indicate that the genetic and biological diversity of HIV-2 is far greater than previously appreciated and suggest that there may be subtype-specific differences in virus biology.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) seroprevalence and characterization of a distinct HIV-2 genetic subtype from the natural range of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected sooty mangabeys

TLDR
Support is provided for the hypotheses that new HIV-2 subtypes result from independent cross-species transmission of SIVsm to the human population and that these single-occurrence transmission events had not spread widely into the population by 1993.

Limitations of a molecular clock applied to considerations of the origin of HIV-1.

TLDR
The strengths as well as limitations of molecular clock analysis and the implications of the findings for planning vaccines and forecasting the future of the AIDS epidemic are examined.