Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes

  title={Origin of HIV-1 in the chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes},
  author={F. Gao and Elizabeth Bailes and David L. Robertson and Yalu Chen and Cynthia M. Rodenburg and Scott F. Michael and Larry B. Cummins and Larry O. Arthur and Martine Peeters and George M. Shaw and Paul M. Sharp and Beatrice H. Hahn},
The human AIDS viruses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) represent cross-species (zoonotic) infections. Although the primate reservoir of HIV-2 has been clearly identified as the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys),, the origin of HIV-1 remains uncertain. Viruses related to HIV-1 have been isolated from the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), but only three such SIVcpz infections have been documented,,, one of which involved a virus so divergent that it might… 

Chimpanzees as original source for HIV.

The genome of a new SIVcpz strain is sequenced and the subspecies identity of all known SIV cpz-infected chimpanzees is determined, by mitochondrial DNA analysis, and it is found that two chimpanzee subspecies in Africa harbour SIVCPz and that their respective viruses form two highly divergent (but subspecies-specific) phylogenetic lineages.

Chimpanzee Reservoirs of Pandemic and Nonpandemic HIV-1

By sequence analysis of endemic SIVcpz strains, this work could trace the origins of pandemic and nonpandemic HIV-1 to distinct, geographically isolated chimpanzee communities and establish P. t.

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Wild-Caught Chimpanzees from Cameroon

Test data indicate long-standing endemic infection of central chimpanzees and reaffirm a west central African origin of HIV-1, together with evidence of recombination among ancestral SIVcpzPtt lineages.

Adaptation of HIV-1 to its human host.

Observations provide compelling evidence for host-specific adaptation during the emergence of HIV-1 and identify the viral matrix protein as a modulator of viral fitness following transmission to the new human host.

The evolution of HIV-1 and the origin of AIDS

  • P. SharpB. Hahn
  • Biology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2010
The origin of AIDS is more ancient than the origin of HIV-1, and tracing the genetic changes that occurred as monkey viruses adapted to infect first chimpanzees and then humans may provide insights into the causes of the pathogenicity of these viruses.

Eastern Chimpanzees, but Not Bonobos, Represent a Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Reservoir

All newly identified SIVcpzPts strains clustered in strict accordance to their subspecies origin; however, they exhibited considerable genetic diversity, especially in protein domains known to be under strong host selection pressure, and cannot be explained by an insufficient primate reservoir.

Simian retroviruses in African apes.

  • M. PeetersE. Delaporte
  • Biology
    Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
  • 2012
This work elaborate on how the recent development of non-invasive methods has allowed the reservoirs of the HIV-1 ancestors in chimpanzees and gorillas to be identified, and increased the knowledge of the natural history of SIV infections in chimpanzees.

New Strain of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Identified in Wild-Born Chimpanzees from Central Africa

Using in-house peptide ELISAs to study SIV prevalence, 104 wild-born captive chimpanzees from Gabon and Congo were tested and two new cases of SIVCPz infection in Gabon were identified and a new SIVcpz strain was characterized, SIV cpzPtt-Gab4.

Co-Evolution of Primate SAMHD1 and Lentivirus Vpx Leads to the Loss of the vpx Gene in HIV-1 Ancestor

It is shown that the co-evolution of primate SAMHD1 and lentivirus Vpx leads to the loss of the vpx gene in SIVcpz and HIV-1, which results in restricted infection in myeloid cells that are important for antiviral immunity, which could contribute to the AIDS pandemic by escaping the immune responses.



Genetic organization of a chimpanzee lentivirus related to HIV-1

The molecular cloning and sequencing of an infectious proviral clone of SIVCPZ indicates that there is a larger pool of simian lentiviruses than previously suspected and revives debate as to the origins of HIV-1.

An African primate lentivirus (SIVsmclosely related to HIV-2

SIVsm has infected macaques in captivity and humans in West Africa and evolved as SIVmac and HIV-2, respectively, according to molecularly cloned and sequenced SIVsm.

Sequence analysis of a highly divergent HIV-1-related lentivirus isolated from a wild captured chimpanzee.

The sequence analysis of a third HIV-1-related virus, SIVCPZ-ANT, isolated from a wild captured chimpanzee originating from Zaire is described, suggesting multiple introductions of HIV- 1 in the human population and shed new light on the origin of the HIV-2 pandemic.

Mosaic genome structure of simian immunodeficiency virus from west African green monkeys.

Results indicate that African green monkeys have been infected with SIVAGM for very long periods of time, and that recombination and cross‐species transmission in the wild have contributed to the genetic complexity of primate lentiviruses.

Human infection by genetically diverse SIVSM-related HIV-2 in West Africa

It is indicated that HIV-2, SIVSM and SIVMAC comprise a single, highly diverse group of lentiviruses which cannot be separated into distinct phylogenetic lineages according to species of origin.

An African HIV-1 sequence from 1959 and implications for the origin of the epidemic

Multiple phylogenetic analyses not only authenticate this case as the oldest known HIV-1 infection, but also place its viral sequence near the ancestral node of subtypes B and D in the major group, indicating that these HIV- 1 subtypes, and perhaps all major-group viruses, may have evolved from a single introduction into the African population not long before 1959.

Cross-species transmission and recombination of 'AIDS' viruses.

Phylogenetic analyses indicate that co-infection with highly divergent viral strains can occur in HIV-infected humans and SIV-infecting primates; this could lead to the generation of hybrid genomes with significantly altered biological properties, and also has important implications for HIV vaccine development programmes.

Genetic characterization of new West African simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm: geographic clustering of household-derived SIV strains with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtypes and genetically diverse viruses from a single feral sooty mangabey troop

The hypothesis that each HIV-2 subtype in West Africans originated from widely divergent SIVsm strains, transmitted by independent cross-species events in the same geographic locations is supported.

Identification of a new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 distinct from group M and group O

YBF30 is as distinct from SIVcpz-gab as it is from HIV-1 group M and can thus be considered as the prototype strain of a new human immunodeficiency virus group.

Simian immunodeficiency viruses from central and western Africa: evidence for a new species-specific lentivirus in tantalus monkeys

The fact that AGMs are infected by four distinct lentiviruses, each specific for a singleAGM species, supports the hypothesis of a coevolution of these viruses and their natural hosts and suggests that SIV transmission is a rare event among separated AGM species in the wild.