Origin and loss of nebula-captured hydrogen envelopes from ‘sub’- to ‘super-Earths’ in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars

  title={Origin and loss of nebula-captured hydrogen envelopes from ‘sub’- to ‘super-Earths’ in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars},
  author={Helmut Lammer and Alexander Stokl and N. V. Erkaev and Ernst A. Dorfi and Petra Odert and Manuel Gudel and Yu. N. Kulikov and K. G. Kislyakova and Martin Leitzinger},
  journal={Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
We investigate the origin and loss of captured hydrogen envelopes from protoplanets having masses in a range between ‘sub-Earth’-like bodies of 0.1 M⊕ and ‘super-Earths’ with 5 M⊕ in the habitable zone at 1 au of a Sun-like G star, assuming that their rocky cores had formed before the nebula gas dissipated. We model the gravitational attraction and accumulation of nebula gas around a planet’s core as a function of protoplanetary luminosity during accretion and calculate the resulting surface… Expand

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