Origin and diversification of endomycorrhizal fungi and coincidence with vascular land plants

  title={Origin and diversification of endomycorrhizal fungi and coincidence with vascular land plants},
  author={Luc Simon and Jean Bousquet and Roger C. L{\'e}vesque and Maurice Lalonde},
AMONG the Eukaryota, the true fungi comprise four divisions (Chytridiomycota, Zymogomycota, Ascomycota and Basidio-mycota) that constitute a natural group which is thought to have diverged about 1 billion (109) years ago, believed also to be the time of divergence between metaphyta and metazoa lineages1. The endosymbionts responsible for the most prevalent plant root symbiosis, the vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) or, more appropriately, arbuscular mycorrhizae, comprise 130 species of… 
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Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants.
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Morphological and Molecular Identification of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) Fungi
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in Lycopodiaceae.
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7 Evolution of the ‘Plant-Symbiotic’ Fungal Phylum, Glomeromycota
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Update on Symbiosis Carbon Metabolism and Transport in Arbuscular Mycorrhizas
Colonization of the land by plants some 400 million years ago was associated with the colonization of their primitive roots by soil-borne filamentous fungi (Nicolson, 1975; Simon et al., 1993; Taylor


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Vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae from the Triassic of Antarctica
The fungi associated with the Antarctic roots provide the most complete and convincing evidence for prePleistocene VA mycorrhizae in the fossil record and are compared with possible Paleozoic analogs from the Devonian and the Pennsylvanian.
Advances in the Study of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza
With improved techniques, very striking effects of inoculation on plant growth and phosphate uptake have been demonstrated beyond doubt, and this has led to studies of the uptake mechanism and the source of the extra phosphate.
Specific amplification of 18S fungal ribosomal genes from vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungi colonizing roots
A polymerase chain reaction primer (VANS1) is developed that enables the specific amplification of a portion of the vesicular-arbuscular endomycorrhizal fungus small subunit rRNA directly from a mixture of plant and fungal tissues.
Date of the monocot-dicot divergence estimated from chloroplast DNA sequence data.
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Relative-Rate Test for Nucleotide Substitutions between Two Lineages
The relative-rate test of Wu and Li ( 1985) is extended to cases where more than one taxon are sampled for one nucleotide sequence in two lineages compared, and formulas for calculating both the weighted number of substitutions in each lineage as compared with a common reference taxon and the variance of the difference in the weightedNumber of nucleotide substitutions between the two lineage are presented.
The early evolution of eukaryotes: a geological perspective.
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