Orientation, Migration Routes and Flight Behaviour of Knots, Turnstones and Brant Geese Departing from Iceland in Spring

@article{Alerstam1990OrientationMR,
  title={Orientation, Migration Routes and Flight Behaviour of Knots, Turnstones and Brant Geese Departing from Iceland in Spring},
  author={Thomas Alerstam and G. A. Gundmundsson and Paul Eric J{\"o}nsson and Johan Karlsson and {\AA}ke Lindstr{\"o}m},
  journal={Arctic},
  year={1990},
  volume={43},
  pages={201-214}
}
Flight behaviour and orientation of 303 flocks (31,200 individuals) of migrating Knots and Turnstones and 77 flocks (3200 individuals) of Brant Geese departing from Iceland towards Nearctic breeding grounds were recorded during three spring seasons 1986-88. Flocks were tracked by telescope and optical range finder at three observation sites in western Iceland during the peak period of migratory departure, 25 May-1 June. Departing waders climbed steeply, often by circling and soaring flight… 

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