author={Natalie de Souza},
  journal={Nature biotechnology},
  volume={39 9},
An organoid is a 3D multicellular in vitro tissue construct that mimics its corresponding in vivo organ, such that it can be used to study aspects of that organ in the tissue culture dish. Although 3D tissue culture is decades old, the word organoid is today most commonly used to describe such constructs derived from stem cells; these could be either pluripotent (embryonic or induced) or adult stem cells from various organs. It is thought that the processes that form these tissues in vitro… Expand
Advances in development and application of human organoids
The current strategies for establishing various types of organoids of ectodermal, endodermal and mesodermal origin are discussed and their applications in modeling human health and diseases, applications in regenerative medicine and evolutionary studies are discussed. Expand
Organoids are promising tools for species‐specific in vitro toxicological studies
The current culture organoid techniques are discussed for their main advantages, disadvantages and limitations and the characterization of species‐specific organoids generated from tissue‐specific SCs of different sources are concentrated on. Expand
Isolation, culture and maintenance of rabbit intestinal organoids, and organoid-derived cell monolayers
This newly established organoid culture system will provide a useful tool to study rabbit gastrointestinal physiology and disease and may be used to propagate and study caliciviruses and other enterotropic pathogens that cannot be grown in conventional cell culture systems. Expand
Next-Generation Liver Medicine Using Organoid Models
Robust and long-term cultures of organoids with the closest physiology to in vivo liver, in terms of cellular composition and function, open a new era in studying and understanding the disease pathology as well as high-throughput drug screening. Expand
The myriad possibility of kidney organoids
Despite some limitations, hPSC-derived kidney organoids are authentic and practical models for investigating kidney development and disease and progressing understanding about tissue regeneration, drug screening, and disease modelling. Expand
Advances in Engineering Human Tissue Models
Recent advances in 3D biomimetic cultures are reviewed, focusing on the technological bricks available to develop more physiologically relevant in vitro models of human tissues. Expand
A Systematically Reduced Mathematical Model for Organoid Expansion
A continuum mathematical model is developed to investigate how mass transport within the bioreactor depends on the inlet flow rate and cell seeding density, focusing on the transport of two key metabolites: glucose and lactate. Expand
Culture and differentiation of rabbit intestinal organoids and organoid-derived cell monolayers
A robust protocol for the isolation, maintenance and differentiation of rabbit small intestinal organoids and organoid-derived cell monolayers is reported and it is suggested that the organoids do not contain suitable host cell types or that additional co-factors are required for a productive infection of rabbit organoids with Rabbit calicivirus Australia-1. Expand
Creation of bladder assembloids by reconstituting tissue stem cell/tumour cell-derived organoids with multiple stromal components
This work creates multi-layered normal bladder assembloids and tumours by reconstituting tissue stem cell/tumour cell-derived organoids with multiple stromal components to represent an organized tissue architecture and functionality of adult bladder, and to mimic in vivo pathophysiological features of patient-derived urothelial carcinoma. Expand
Generation of functional human pancreatic organoids by transplants of embryonic stem cell derivatives in a 3D‐printed tissue trapper
The results indicated that, in contrast to corresponding early PP transplants, 3D PO developed more vascularization as indicated by greater area and number of vessels, a higher number of insulin‐positive cells and improvement of human C‐peptide secretions. Expand