With the prevalence of air quality issues in our society, the ability to remove toxic gases from air is a necessity. This work addresses the development of biphasic, nanostructured, organoalkoxysilane-grafted, siliceous materials for use in single pass filters of various types for the removal of acidic and basic gases from humid air. Materials exhibit high single pass capacities for sulfur dioxide, a representative acid-forming gas, or ammonia, a representative basic gas. The nanostructured siliceous support provides initial ammonia capacity, and grafted amine and carbonyl groups provide desired functional chemistries for sulfur dioxide and enhanced ammonia capacities. Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAPS)-MCM-41 has the highest ammonia capacity at about 7 mol/kg at 1500 ppmv and 23 °C, and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES)-MCM-41 has the highest sulfur dioxide capacity at 0.85 mol/kg at 500 ppmv and 23 °C. These biphasic materials exhibit high adsorption capacity for two distinct gases and are promising candidates as adsorbents for protection from toxic industrial gases.