Organized crime and ethnic reputation manipulation

@article{Bovenkerk2003OrganizedCA,
  title={Organized crime and ethnic reputation manipulation},
  author={Frank Bovenkerk and Dina Siegel and Dami{\'a}n Zaitch},
  journal={Crime, Law and Social Change},
  year={2003},
  volume={39},
  pages={23-38}
}
Criminologists often use culture andethnicity to explain crime. In thistradition, organized crime is presentedwith an exotic flavor and the list oftransnational criminal organizations readslike an inventory of ethnic minorities andforeign groups. But the relation betweenethnicity and organized crime isproblematic to say the least. In the courseof our research on several groups active inthe Netherlands (Turkish and Kurdish heroindealers, Yugoslav and Russian-speaking mafiosi, Colombian cocaine… 
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