Development, organization, and remodeling of phoronid muscles from embryo to metamorphosis (Lophotrochozoa: Phoronida)
Results provided by modern TEM methods indicate the existence of the lophophoral and trunk coelomes but not of the preoral coelom in Phoronida. In the present work, the epistome in Phoronopsis harmeri was studied by histological and ultrastructural methods. Two kinds of cells were found in the frontal epidermis: supporting and glandular. The coelomic compartment is shown to be inside the epistome. This compartment has a complex shape, consists of a central part and two lateral branches, and contacts the lophophoral coelom, forming two complete dissepiments on the lateral sides and a partition with many holes in the center. TEM reveals that some portions of the incomplete partition are organized like a mesentery, with the two layers of cells separated by ECM. The myoepithelial cells of the coelomic lining form the circular and radial musculature of the epistome. Numerous amoebocytes occur in the coelom lumen. The tip of the epistome and its dorso-lateral parts lack a coelomic cavity and are occupied by ECM and muscle cells. The fine structure of the T-shaped vessel is described, and its localization inside lophophoral coelom is demonstrated. We assert that the cavity inside the epistome is the preoral coelom corresponding to the true preoral coelom of the larva of this species. Proving this assertion will require additional study of metamorphosis in this species. To clarify the patterns of coelom organization in phoronids, we discuss the bipartite coelomic system in Phoronis and the tripartite coelomic system in Phoronopsis.