Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control

@article{Crowder2010OrganicAP,
  title={Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control},
  author={D. Crowder and T. Northfield and M. Strand and W. E. Snyder},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2010},
  volume={466},
  pages={109-112}
}
Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural… Expand
Conservation Biocontrol: Principles and Implementation in Organic Farming
Conventional agricultural systems have become more intensive and pesticide-dependent over the last few decades. The contamination of the environment by pesticides, the use of mineral fertilisers, andExpand
Relationships between biodiversity and biological control in agroecosystems: Current status and future challenges
TLDR
The effects of agricultural intensification on the diversity of natural enemy communities attacking arthropod pests and weeds is reviewed and novel experimental approaches that can be used to explore the relationships between biodiversity and biological control in agroecosystems are discussed. Expand
Conservation Biological Control in Agricultural Landscapes
TLDR
It is shown that maintaining within-field diversity in space and time, reducing nitrogen fertilization or soil tillage as well as using organic farming practices at the farm scale or maintaining seminatural habitats at the landscape scale generally benefit natural enemies, increase biological control and limit pest abundance. Expand
Soil organic matter links organic farming to enhanced predator evenness
TLDR
Enhancing organic matter could be one strategy for re-balancing natural enemy densities to increase evenness, and improving soil microclimate to the benefit of ground beetles. Expand
Conserving and promoting evenness: organic farming and fire-based wildland management as case studies.
TLDR
The assertion that richness and evenness capture separate facets of biodiversity, each needing individual attention during conservation, is supported. Expand
Organic farming affects the biological control of hemipteran pests and yields in spring barley independent of landscape complexity
TLDR
It is suggested that it is possible to increase both aphid biological control services and barley yield via local management effects on predator communities independent of landscape complexity, however, the success of such management practices is highly dependent on the pest and natural enemy taxa and the nature of the trophic interaction. Expand
Ecology of pollinators, pests and natural enemies in agricultural landscapes
TLDR
It was found that pest abundance in white clover fields decreased with distance from the previous year’s field, and pest abundance increased, whereas parasitism rates provided by natural enemies decreased, with proportion arable land in the surrounding landscape. Expand
Give predators a complement: Conserving natural enemy biodiversity to improve biocontrol
TLDR
A range of approaches that conservation biological control practitioners might deploy to specifically encourage complementarity and dampen interference are suggested, consistent with a growing realization that CBC efforts that simultaneously encourage multiple ecosystem services will be most likely to be adopted by growers. Expand
Natural enemies and pollinators in traditional cherry orchards: Functionally important taxa respond differently to farming system
TLDR
Overall, dominant or most representative parasitoid and pollinator taxa benefited from organic management, whereas predators showed a more heterogeneous pattern in their abundances probably due to their varying responses to habitat characteristics. Expand
Organic Regime Promotes Evenness of Natural Enemies and Planthopper Control in Paddy Fields
TLDR
The results underscore the notion that management regimes influence biodiversity in rice field and have direct implications on the efficacy of natural pest control services rendered by predators and parasitoids associated with planthoppers in China and potentially other rice production regions in Asia. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 39 REFERENCES
Comparison of organic and conventional farms: challenging ecologists to make biodiversity functional
TLDR
It is found that few studies have measured biodiversity effects on pest control and yield on organic farms compared to conventional farms, and calls for a stronger scientific basis for evaluating pest suppression effects due to enhanced natural enemy diversity. Expand
Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control
TLDR
It is concluded that diversified landscapes hold most potential for the conservation of biodiversity and sustaining the pest control function and similar contributions of these landscape factors suggest that all are equally important in enhancing natural enemy populations. Expand
The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: a meta‐analysis
TLDR
It is suggested that positive effects of organic farming on species richness can be expected in intensively managed agricultural landscapes, but not in small-scale landscapes comprising many other biotopes as well as agricultural fields. Expand
Does organic farming benefit biodiversity
Abstract The intensification and expansion of modern agriculture is amongst the greatest current threats to worldwide biodiversity. Over the last quarter of the 20th century, dramatic declines inExpand
Initial community evenness favours functionality under selective stress
TLDR
It is found that the stability of the net ecosystem denitrification in the face of salinity stress was strongly influenced by the initial evenness of the community, therefore, when communities are highly uneven, or there is extreme dominance by one or a few species, their functioning is less resistant to environmental stress. Expand
Habitat modification alters the structure of tropical host–parasitoid food webs
TLDR
Altered interaction structure represents an insidious and functionally important hidden effect of habitat modification by humans, indicating that perturbation of the structure and function of ecological communities might be overlooked in studies that do not document and quantify species interactions. Expand
Reductions in grassland species evenness increase dicot seedling invasion and spittle bug infestation
TLDR
Results support the view that higher diversity plant communities are more resistant to dicot invaders and insect herbivores. Expand
Scared sick? Predator-pathogen facilitation enhances exploitation of a shared resource.
TLDR
The results suggest that predator-pathogen combinations were particularly taxing not because the consumer species partitioned resources among themselves, but instead because they enforced the partitioning of resources internal to prey/host individuals. Expand
EFFECTS OF BIODIVERSITY ON ECOSYSTEM FUNCTIONING: A CONSENSUS OF CURRENT KNOWLEDGE
TLDR
Understanding this complexity, while taking strong steps to minimize current losses of species, is necessary for responsible management of Earth's ecosystems and the diverse biota they contain. Expand
Increasing corn for biofuel production reduces biocontrol services in agricultural landscapes
TLDR
The value of biocontrol services to the U.S. economy may be underestimated and development of cellulosic ethanol production processes that use a variety of feedstocks could foster increased diversity in agricultural landscapes and enhance arthropod-mediated ecosystem services. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...