Orexins in the Regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis

@article{Spinazzi2006OrexinsIT,
  title={Orexins in the Regulation of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis},
  author={Raffaella Spinazzi and Paola G. Andreis and Gian Paolo Rossi and Gastone Giovanni Nussdorfer},
  journal={Pharmacological Reviews},
  year={2006},
  volume={58},
  pages={46 - 57}
}
Orexin-A and orexin-B are hypothalamic peptides that act via two G protein-coupled receptors, named orexin type 1 and type 2 receptors (OX1-Rs and OX2-Rs). The most studied biological functions of orexins are the central control of feeding and sleep, but in the past few years findings that orexin system modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, acting on both its central and peripheral branches, have accumulated. Orexins and their receptors are expressed in the hypothalamic… Expand
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References

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Orexins stimulate corticosterone secretion of rat adrenocortical cells, through the activation of the adenylate cyclase-dependent signaling cascade
TLDR
Findings suggest that orexins exert a selective and direct glucocorticoid secretagogue action on the rat adrenals, acting through a receptor-mediated activation of the adenylate cyclase/PKA-dependent signaling pathway. Expand
Orexins (hypocretins) and adrenal function.
TLDR
Experimental data demonstrate a stimulatory effect of orexins on the secretion of adrenocortical steroids, mainly on glucocorticoids, and some results also suggest the regulation of catecholamine synthesis and release by orexin system. Expand
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TLDR
The present review focuses on the physiological properties of the cells that secrete or respond to orexins, which appear to be controlled by feeding- and sleep-related signals via a variety of neurotransmitters/hormones from the brain and other tissues. Expand
The Central Effects of Orexin‐A in the Hypothalamic‐Pituitary‐Adrenal Axis In Vivo and In Vitro in Male Rats
TLDR
Results suggest that orexin‐A is involved in activation of the HPA axis, and that these effects could be mediated via the release of NPY. Expand
Prolonged orexin administration stimulates steroid-hormone secretion, acting directly on the rat adrenal gland.
TLDR
Findings indicate that orexins exert a marked direct chronic secretagogue action on adrenocortical cells, acting through both OX1R and OX2R. Expand
Effects of Orexins on the Hypothalamic‐Pituitary‐Adrenal System
TLDR
This study suggests that these appetite‐regulating peptides might activate the HPA system at a central level but neither orexin‐A nor orex in‐B appears to modulate directly the adrenal corticosterone release. Expand
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TLDR
The results of the present study provide the first evidence showing that the adrenal medulla of the rat expresses orexin receptors, and thus appears to be a target tissue for orexins, which could open a new loop in which the central and autonomous nervous system may be involved in body weight homeostasis and sleep control. Expand
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TLDR
The data indicate that food deprivation has differential effects on orexin receptor expression and their signaling characteristics at the hypothalamic and adrenocortical levels, and suggest orexins as potential metabolic regulators within the HPA axis both centrally and peripherally. Expand
Orexin A stimulates cortisol secretion from human adrenocortical cells through activation of the adenylate cyclase-dependent signaling cascade.
TLDR
The findings suggest that orexins selectively stimulate glucocorticoid secretion from human adrenocortical cells, acting through OX1-R coupled with the adenylate cyclase-dependent signaling pathway. Expand
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The hypothalamic peptides, orexin-A and orexin-B, have been implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior. In starved rats catabolic activity quickly predominates, reinforced by elevatedExpand
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