Orbital magnetization in periodic insulators.

  title={Orbital magnetization in periodic insulators.},
  author={Timo Thonhauser and Davide Ceresoli and David Vanderbilt and Raffaele Resta},
  journal={Physical review letters},
  volume={95 13},
Working in the Wannier representation, we derive an expression for the orbital magnetization of a periodic insulator. The magnetization is shown to be comprised of two contributions, an obvious one associated with the internal circulation of bulklike Wannier functions in the interior, and an unexpected one arising from net currents carried by Wannier functions near the surface. Each contribution can be expressed as a bulk property in terms of Bloch functions in a gauge-invariant way. Our… Expand
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