Orbital levels of crown ethers and related macrocycles studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy; relationship to complexation studies

@article{Baker1983OrbitalLO,
  title={Orbital levels of crown ethers and related macrocycles studied by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy; relationship to complexation studies},
  author={Arthur David. Baker and G. Horozoglu Armen and Stephen Funaro},
  journal={Journal of The Chemical Society-dalton Transactions},
  year={1983},
  pages={2519-2523}
}
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy has been used to measure the valence-shell ionization potentials of several crown ethers and other macrocyclic ligands. A comparison is made with results for corresponding open-chain and other model compounds. In general, evidence is found for appreciable through-bond or through-space interactions among the heteroatom lone-pair orbitals in the macrocyclic molecules, making these molecules softer ligands than would otherwise be anticipated. 
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