Orangutan Cultures and the Evolution of Material Culture

@article{vanSchaik2003OrangutanCA,
  title={Orangutan Cultures and the Evolution of Material Culture},
  author={Carel P. van Schaik and Marc Ancrenaz and Gwendolyn Borgen and Birut{\'e} M. F. Galdikas and Cheryl D Knott and Ian Singleton and Akira Suzuki and Sri Suci Utami and Michelle Y. Merrill},
  journal={Science},
  year={2003},
  volume={299},
  pages={102 - 105}
}
Geographic variation in some aspects of chimpanzee behavior has been interpreted as evidence for culture. Here we document similar geographic variation in orangutan behaviors. Moreover, as expected under a cultural interpretation, we find a correlation between geographic distance and cultural difference, a correlation between the abundance of opportunities for social learning and the size of the local cultural repertoire, and no effect of habitat on the content of culture. Hence, great-ape… 

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...

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