Oral treatment for multiple sclerosis

@article{Killestein2011OralTF,
  title={Oral treatment for multiple sclerosis},
  author={Joep Killestein and Richard A. Rudick and Chris H. Polman},
  journal={The Lancet Neurology},
  year={2011},
  volume={10},
  pages={1026-1034}
}
Advances in oral immunomodulating therapies in relapsing multiple sclerosis
TLDR
The oral immunomodulator laquinimod did not reach the primary endpoint of reduction in confirmed disability progression in a phase 3 trial of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis, and the development of this drug will probably not be continued in multiple sclerosis.
of multiple sclerosis
TLDR
The role of teriflunomide in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis is discussed and the mechanisms of action and efficacy and safety results from clinical trials with this drug are discussed.
Role of oral teriflunomide in the management of multiple sclerosis
TLDR
The role of teriflunomide in the treatment of relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis is discussed and the mechanisms of action and efficacy and safety results from clinical trials with this drug are discussed.
Oral Disease-Modifying Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis
TLDR
Three oral drugs have been approved by regulatory agencies for MS treatment: fingolimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate and the mechanisms of action, safety, and efficacy are reviewed.
An update on cladribine for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis
TLDR
Cladribine is well tolerated, it is dosed orally in cycles of one year, the need for regular blood testing during treatment is likely limited, and the two-year efficacy data for treatment of relapsing MS are at least in the same range as the most efficient licensed treatments.
Current and Future Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis
TLDR
A concise and comprehensive review of present and potential treatments for multiple sclerosis is presented, including alemtuzumab, dimethyl fumarate, laquinimod, rituximab, daclizumAB, and cladribine.
Laquinimod Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis: A Comprehensive Review
TLDR
Laquinimod has been shown to have a novel immunomodulatory and potential neuroprotective mechanism of action as suggested from animal models and in vitro experimental data.
Immunomodulatory therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: monoclonal antibodies, currently approved and in testing
TLDR
An overview of available injectable, oral, and intravenous therapies for RRMS is provided, and guidance in selecting an appropriate therapy is offered, focusing on the recently approved and emerging monoclonal antibody therapies.
Alemtuzumab for multiple sclerosis: who and when to treat?
TLDR
All those involved in improving public health, whether they are delivering services in local government or the NHS, are in the academic community, or in civil society, should use the extensive material contained in this report to engage in a dialogue about what is already known and what needs to be known, thereby setting their own local agendas for knowledge generation, synthesis, and action.
Op{ti pregledi/ General reviews NEW PERSPECTIVES IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS TREATMENT NOVE PERSPEKTIVE U LE^ENJU MULTIPLE
TLDR
Preliminary results indicate that oral medications are as effective as, or possibly more effective than, current injection agents in the treatment of relapsing-remitting MS.
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References

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Oral Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis
TLDR
The objective of this article is to review the currently available data for each of these new oral therapies, which addresses the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety, and to provide a perspective on the potential future role of these therapies within clinical practice.
Immune mechanisms of new therapeutic strategies in MS: teriflunomide.
TLDR
Due to its favorable safety profile and its efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis where the aberrant immune response is in various aspects similar to the autoimmune reaction in MS patients, teriflunomide is a promising treatment option for MS patients.
Emerging Oral Therapies for Multiple Sclerosis
  • Colleen E. Miller, M. Umhauer
  • Medicine
    The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
  • 2011
TLDR
The oral MS therapies recently approved as well as those currently in development or submitted for Food and Drug Administration approval are reviewed.
Development of oral cladribine for the treatment of multiple sclerosis
TLDR
The need for new MS therapies to improve treatment adherence is discussed, the mechanism of action, existing efficacy and safety data, and the clinical development of oral cladribine are reviewed; the need for continuous risk monitoring for all new potent immunoactive drugs under development is emphasized.
Fingolimod in multiple sclerosis: mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy.
TLDR
The immunological profile of fingolimod is summarized, the possible direct neurobiological effects that have been suggested recently are discussed and the clinical data regarding the efficacy and safety profiles of this promising new drug are presented.
Future clinical challenges in multiple sclerosis
TLDR
The importance of improving the understanding of the neurobiological basis of MS to develop well-tolerated targeted therapies and the need to include advanced MRI assessments that quantify neurodegeneration in interventional studies in MS are highlighted.
Multiple sclerosis therapies: molecular mechanisms and future.
TLDR
This chapter highlights both promising preclinical approaches and therapies in late stage clinical trials that have been developed as a result of the improved understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of MS.
Oral fingolimod (FTY720) for relapsing multiple sclerosis.
TLDR
In this proof-of-concept study, fingolimod reduced the number of lesions detected on MRI and clinical disease activity in patients with multiple sclerosis and both measures decreased in patients who switched from placebo to fingolIMod.
Oral fingolimod or intramuscular interferon for relapsing multiple sclerosis.
TLDR
This trial showed the superior efficacy of oral fingolimod with respect to relapse rates and MRI outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis, as compared with intramuscular interferon beta-1a.
Mechanisms of fingolimod's efficacy and adverse effects in multiple sclerosis
TLDR
Findings suggest that S1PR modulation by fingolimod in both the immune system and CNS, producing a combination of beneficial anti‐inflammatory and possibly neuroprotective/reparative effects, may contribute to its efficacy in MS.
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