Oral submucous fibrosis: A global challenge. Rising incidence, risk factors, management, and research priorities.

@article{Ray2019OralSF,
  title={Oral submucous fibrosis: A global challenge. Rising incidence, risk factors, management, and research priorities.},
  author={J. G. Ray and Raghunath Chatterjee and Keya Chaudhuri},
  journal={Periodontology 2000},
  year={2019},
  volume={80 1},
  pages={
          200-212
        }
}
Oral submucous fibrosis is a potentially malignant disorder of the oral cavity, with a high rate of malignant transformation. It is very common among habitual areca nut chewers. The pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis is not well established, but it is believed to be a disease of multifactorial origin, including areca nut chewing, ingestion of chilies, genetic factors, immunologic processes and nutritional deficiencies. Genetically susceptible individuals when exposed to areca nut chewing… 
Molecular pathways regulated by areca nut in the etiopathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis.
TLDR
The molecular mechanisms involved in oral submucous fibrosis development are addressed and a model for the regulation of transforming growth factor-β by areca nut is provided, which provides an exemplar of the role of modern molecular techniques in the study of oral disease.
Nonneoplastic diseases and disorders of the oral mucosa: A contemporary overview.
TLDR
This volume of Periodontology 2000 provides a comprehensive contemporary review of such diseases and disorders through 15 chapters, taking a look at the 2017 classification of the periodontal diseases and discussing the importance of close liaison between the specialties of oral medicine and of periodontology in the management of the many oral diseases.
Research Achievements of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: Progress and Prospect
TLDR
This article provides a comprehensive review and prospect of OSMF research, providing scholars and clinicians with a better perspective and new ideas for the research and treatment of OS MF.
N6-methyladenosine modification contributes to arecoline-mediated oral submucosal fibrosis.
  • Xia Li, Yijun Gao, Yilong Ai
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • 2022
TLDR
TGF-β-METTL14-m6A-MYC axis was crucially implicated in arecoline-mediated OSF and may be an effective therapeutic strategy for OSF treatment.
Oral Submucous Fibrosis: Correlation of Clinical Grading to Various Habit Factors
TLDR
It is alarming that nearly half of the total subjects were in the younger age group and were having OSMF, and as the age increased, the subjects were found to be more attracted to consuming areca nut derivatives in the form of betel quid with or without tobacco.
Association of NQO1 C609T (Pro187Ser) with risk of Oral Submucous Fibrosis in Eastern Indian population
TLDR
It is suggested that the NQO1 C609T polymorphism confers increased risk for OSF in habitual chewers in an eastern Indian population.
Arecoline enhances miR-21 to promote buccal mucosal fibroblasts activation.
Betel quid chewing and oral potential malignant disorders and the impact of smoking and drinking: A meta-analysis
TLDR
The synergistic effects between smoking/drinking and betel quid highlights the importance of focusing on individuals with multiple exposures and further study should be conducted to confirm these interactions.
Oral potentially malignant disorders: A consensus report from an international seminar on nomenclature and classification, convened by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer
TLDR
It is recommended the establishment of a global research consortium to further study the natural history of OPMDs based on the classification and nomenclature proposed here, and link them to evidence-based interventions, to facilitate the prevention and management of lip and oral cavity cancer.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 125 REFERENCES
Pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. Relationship to risk factors associated with oral cancer
TLDR
Existing evidence on the pathogenesis of OSF and its relation to oral cancer is reviewed and a possible multifactorial model to explain the disease process is suggested.
Oral Submucous Fibrosis: Review on Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Malignant Transformation
TLDR
The understanding of mechanisms of malignant transformation may lead to early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) arising in the background of OSF.
Oral Submucous Fibrosis: Review on Etiopathogenesis
TLDR
Current evidence implicates collagen-related genes in the susceptibility and pathogenesis of OSF and the individual mechanisms operating at various stages of the disease– initial, intermediate and advanced–need further study in order to propose appropriate therapeutic interventions.
Correlation of epigenetic change and identification of risk factors for oral submucous fibrosis
TLDR
Data confirm that E-cadherin and COX-2 expressions are related to OSF, and the epigenetic changes presented in patients with chronic inflammation might demonstrate an irreversible destruction in the tissues or organs similar to the effects of cancer.
Oral submucous fibrosis: etiology, pathogenesis, and future research.
  • R. Rajendran
  • Medicine
    Bulletin of the World Health Organization
  • 1994
TLDR
More research is needed to elucidate the causes of oral submucous fibrosis in south-east Asia and the importance of systemic predisposition, in addition to the effects of local factors on the oral mucosa.
Etiology of oral submucous fibrosis with special reference to the role of areca nut chewing.
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a high risk precancerous condition, predominantly affecting Indians. Consumption of chilli was hypothesized as an etiologic factor on the basis of ecological
Oral submucous fibrosis in India: a new epidemic?
TLDR
An increase in the prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis, especially in the lower age groups, directly attributable to the use of areca nut products was observed, which could lead to an increased in the incidence of oral cancer in the future.
Association between Genetic Polymorphism of Tumor Necrosis Factor-a and Risk of Oral Submucous Fibrosis, a Pre-cancerous Condition of Oral Cancer
TLDR
The high production allele, TNF2, was significantly lower among OSF subjects than in areca-chewing controls, which may imply a multifunctional etiological factor of TNF-α in OSF pathogenesis.
Raised tissue copper levels in oral submucous fibrosis.
TLDR
The finding of copper in OSF tissue supports the hypothesis of copper as an initiating factor inOSF, playing a role in stimulating fibrogenesis by the upregulation of lysyl oxidase activity.
...
...