Oral opioids for chronic non-cancer pain: higher prevalence of hypogonadism in men than in women.


The effect of chronic oral opioids on hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in women, and on bone mineral density (BMD) in men and women is not known. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the effect of long-term oral opioids on gonadal status and BMD in male and female patients with chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). We included 26… (More)
DOI: 10.1055/s-2008-1076715