Oral contraceptives and other risk factors for gallbladder disease

  title={Oral contraceptives and other risk factors for gallbladder disease},
  author={Brian L. Strom and R N Tamragouri and M. Lee Morse and Eric L. Lazar and Suzanne L. West and Paul D. Stolley and Judith K Jones},
  journal={Clinical Pharmacology \& Therapeutics},
Prior studies of the association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and gallbladder disease (GBD) have yielded conflicting results. To clarify this association, a retrospective (historical) cohort study was performed on a very large data base including 1980 and 1981 Medicaid billing data from the states of Michigan and Minnesota in which 138,943 users of OCs were compared with 341,478 nonusers. The crude relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for symptomatic GBD resulting in medical… 

Oral contraceptives and the risk of gallbladder disease: a comparative safety study

In a large cohort of women using oral contraceptives, a small, statistically significant increase in the risk of gallbladder disease associated with desogestrel, drospirenone and norethindrone compared with levonorgestrel is found.

Reproductive Episodes and Asymptomatic Gallstones in Females : Findings from A Nested Case-Control Study in Hokkaido, Japan

This is the first epidemiological investigation in Japan which explored an association between reproductive episodes and asymptomatic gallstone formation in women.

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Increasing age and body mass index and a maternal family history of gallstone disease were the most consistent associations (both at univariate and multivariate analysis and in both sexes) found in this study.

Effects of diabetes mellitus on gallbladder

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Hepatobiliary complications of oral contraceptives

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The effect of indication on hypersensitivity reactions associated with zomepirac sodium and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.

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Coronary risk factors and clinical gallbladder disease: an approach to the prevention of gallstones?

People with hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, or low high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels had elevated risks for clinical gallbladder disease, as did persons with hypertension or diabetes mellitus.



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Thrombosis with low-estrogen oral contraceptives.

A definite risk of thrombosis exists even with the low-estrogen dosage currently employed in oral contraceptive steroids, and the risk for women using formulations containing 100 mug or more of estrogen was higher than that for users of lower doses.

Oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and endogenous oestrogen in gall stone disease--a case-control study.

The age dependence of the relative risk associated with exposure to oral contraceptives and pregnancy suggests that there are subpopulations of women susceptible to early formation of gall stones after exposure to either oral contraceptives or pregnancy.

A long-term follow-up study of women using different methods of contraception--an interim report.

The available evidence does not yet allow a final balance to be struck between the benefits and risks associated with the new methods of contraception that have become widely used during the last two decades, but it seems clear that there are no material risks apart from the risk of pregnancy and that there may be some unintended benefits.

Prevalence of gallstone disease in an Italian adult female population. Rome Group for the Epidemiology and Prevention of Cholelithiasis (GREPCO).

  • Medicine
    American journal of epidemiology
  • 1984
No association was demonstrated between the presence of gallstones or cholecystectomy and other major sex-specific factors, including age at menopause, use of oral contraceptives, and duration and frequency of menstrual cycle.

Effects of pregnancy and contraceptive steroids on gallbladder function.

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The findings confirm the lithogenic effect of contraceptive steroids and indicate that its causes are an increase in cholesterol secretion and a decrease in bile acid secretion.

Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease.

The role and limitations of retrospective investigations of factors possibly associated with the occurrence of a disease are discussed and their relationship to forward-type studies emphasized.

Prescribing of tetracycline to children less than 8 years old. A two-year epidemiologic study among ambulatory Tennessee medicaid recipients.

This study analyzes tetracycline prescribing to ambulatory children less than 8 years of age in the Tennessee Medicaid program during a two-year period to find virtually no indications for administering tetrACYclines to children less to 8 years old.

Prescribing of chloramphenicol in ambulatory practice. An epidemiologic study among Tennessee Medicaid recipients.

Analysis of the prescribing of chloramphenicol (and perhaps other drugs) in ambulatory practice will help identify those physicians most in need or remedial medical education.