Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines

  title={Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines},
  author={Sujean Choi and B. Disilvio and Madelyn H. Fernstrom and John D. Fernstrom},
  journal={Amino Acids},
Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis… 

Metabolomic impacts of branched-chain amino acid supplementation during endurance exercise: a crossover study

After exercise with BCAA supplementation, endurance athletes did not show lower serum serotonin concentration, but did present an almost three-fold increase in L-ornithine which has metabolic connections to cortisol and central fatigue, which may be indicative of a central nervous system mediated process.

Interactions in the Metabolism of Glutamate and the Branched-Chain Amino Acids and Ketoacids in the CNS

  • M. Yudkoff
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Neurochemical Research
  • 2016
This mechanism not only supports the synthesis of glutamate, it also may constitute a mechanism by which high (and potentially toxic) concentrations of glutamate can be avoided by the re-amination of branched-chain ketoacids.

Effects of supplementation with branched chain amino acids and ornithine aspartate on plasma ammonia and central fatigue during exercise in healthy men.

Investigation of the effectiveness of oral BCAA + OA supplementation to reduce plasma ammonia concentration and enhance psychomotor performance during exhaustive exercise in healthy men found it a useful way to improve MCRT during high-intensity exercise and accelerate the elimination of ammonia at the recovery stage after exercise inhealthy young men.

Branched-Chain Amino Acids as Critical Switches in Health and Disease.

This brief review highlights how BCAAs play a key role as gatekeepers feeding into upstream and downstream molecular pathways and in this way are major metabolic regulators involved in the pathophysiology of disease.

Effects of Oral Branched‐Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) Intake on Muscular and Central Fatigue During an Incremental Exercise

Oral intake of 20 g of BCAAs 1 hour prior to an incremental treadmill exercise session increased time to exhaustion, probably due to the reduction in serotonin concentration.

Metformin Promotes Anxiolytic and Antidepressant-Like Responses in Insulin-Resistant Mice by Decreasing Circulating Branched-Chain Amino Acids

It is demonstrated that male mice fed a high-fat diet exhibited peripheral metabolic impairments reminiscent of IR accompanied by elevated circulating levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), whereas both parameters were normalized by chronic treatment with metformin (Met), and it is envisioned that a diet poor in BCAAs could help to relieve depressive symptoms in patients with metabolic comorbidities.

Effects of Supplementation with Ginseng and Branched Chain Amino Acids Improved Central Fatigue and Enhanced Attention during Exercise: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled

Gojinsen® drinks had anti-fatigue effect and enhanced attention, and the therapeutic potential for people suffering from exercise fatigue.

Ergogenic Effect of BCAAs and L-Alanine Supplementation: Proof-of-Concept Study in a Murine Model of Physiological Exercise

This study corroborates the use of B CAAs + ALA to support muscle health during physiological exercise, underlining how the relative BCAAs/ALA ratio is important to control BCAas distribution.

Branched chain amino acids-friend or foe in the control of energy substrate turnover and insulin sensitivity?

The following review addresses various strategies pertaining to the modulation of BCAA catabolism and the possible roles ofBCAA in energy homeostasis and elucidate mechanisms behind the heterogeneity of ramifications associated with BCAA modulation.

A systematic review of the effect of L-tryptophan supplementation on mood and emotional functioning

It is concluded that taking 0.14–3 g of TRP per day in addition to the usual meal can be expected to improve the mood of healthy individuals and further studies need to be conducted with more appropriate settings of intake period, intake frequency, and intake method.



Effect of a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture on regional brain catecholamine synthesis and release

It is indicated that administration of a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture to rats depletes brain tyrosines to cause a decrease in regional brain catecholamine synthesis and release, and dopaminergic neurones appear to be more vulnerable to tyosine depletion than noradrenergic neurone depletion.

Influence of paroxetine, branched-chain amino acids and tyrosine on neuroendocrine system responses and fatigue in humans.

The results indicate that fatigue during endurance exercise was increased by pharmacological augmentation of the brain serotonergic activity, however, a reduction of 5-HT synthesis via BCAA supplementation did not affect physical fatigue.

Brain tryptophan concentrations and serotonin synthesis remain responsive to food consumption after the ingestion of sequential meals.

Brain tryptophan concentrations and serotonin synthesis are responsive to the sequential ingestion of protein and carbohydrate meals if there is a sufficient interval between meals.

Extracellular Hypothalamic Serotonin and Plasma Amino Acids in Response to Sequential Carbohydrate and Protein Meals

The lack of expected changes to a second meal addresses again the hypothesis of alternate appetites for carbohydrates and proteins driven by serotonin changes.

Preference for a Solution of Branched-chain Amino Acids Plus Glutamine and Arginine Correlates with Free Running Activity in Rats: Involvement of Serotonergic-dependent Processes of Lateral Hypothalamus

The forced-running study shows the lateral hypothalamus as a critical region in the effects of a BCAA-based solution, and the exercise-related shift in the fluid preference towards aBCAA- based solution suggests an ergogenic benefit.

Administration of branched-chain amino acids during sustained exercise — effects on performance and on plasma concentration of some amino acids

Both mental and physical performance was improved by an intake of BCAA during exercise and the effects of exercise on the plasma concentration of the aromatic amino acids were altered when a BCAA supplement was given during the marathon.

Brain serotonin content: physiological regulation by plasma neutral amino acids.

The main determinant of brain tryPTophan and serotonin concentrations does not appear to be plasma tryptophan alone, but the ratio of this amino acid to other plasma neutral amino acids that compete with it for uptake into the brain.

Dependence of 5-HT and catecholamine synthesis on concentrations of precursor amino-acids in rat brain

It is concluded that under normal conditions tryptophan hydroxylase in the rat brain is about half-saturated with its amino-acid substrate, whereas tyrosine hydroxyase appears to be about 75% saturated.

Effect of increased brain serotonergic activity on endurance performance in the rat.

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of increased 5-HT activity on endurance performance and brain dopamine turnover in the rat.

A dose-finding study on the effects of branch chain amino acids on surrogate markers of brain dopamine function

A drink containing branch chain amino acids is well tolerated in healthy volunteers and produces effects consistent with lowered dopamine function, which could provide a potential nutritional approach to disorders such as mania and schizophrenia.