Best practice guidelines in the psychosocial management of HPV-related head and neck cancer: recommendations from the European Head and Neck Cancer Society's Make Sense Campaign.
Infection with High Risk (HR) Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) is the main aetiological agent of Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma (CSCC) and also associated in a subgroup of other neoplasms, including Oropharyngeal Squamous cell Carcinoma (OPSCC). HPV infection, in genital as in oral mucosa, can also be subclinical or associated with benign proliferative lesions (common warts, condylomas, papillomas) caused mostly by infection with Low Risk (LR)-HPVs. In the last decades, extensive research has resulted in growing knowledge on HPV biology and specifically viral life cycle, biochemical properties of viral proteins and their interaction with the host proteins leading to potential new targets of prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines and therapies for HPV infection. In addition, notable progresses have been made in the field of diagnostics to detect HPV DNA or RNA. The recent epidemiological data suggest the significant changes in HPV endemic, due to the changes in sexual habits especially among young generations (i.e. early sexual debuts, multiple sexual partners, oral and anal sex); this scenario has urged on the need of adequate campaigns of primary (sexual education, vaccination programs) and secondary prevention (diagnostics of HPV-related diseases). Due to the growing interest on HPV infection and HPV related cancers, the authors made a narrative review of the literature on oral HPV infection and oral-genital transmission. After this, in view of the controversies about the strategies of therapy and prevention of HPV infection, the present review focuses on the current state of art about the available tools for the therapeutic and, if any, preventive management of oral HPV infection.