Oral Antidiabetic Agents

  title={Oral Antidiabetic Agents},
  author={Andrew Krentz and Clifford J. Bailey},
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a progressive and complex disorder that is difficult to treat effectively in the long term. The majority of patients are overweight or obese at diagnosis and will be unable to achieve or sustain near normoglycaemia without oral antidiabetic agents; a sizeable proportion of patients will eventually require insulin therapy to maintain long-term glycaemic control, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with oral antidiabetic therapy. The frequent need for escalating… 

Drug Resistance in Diabetes

This chapter gives the knowledge about diabetes mechanism of drug resistance, classification, pathophysiology and its management and further research is needed to be done in order to prevent the world from this widespread disease.

Pharmacology and therapeutic implications of current drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus

The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety profiles, including cardiovascular safety, of currently available therapies for management of hyperglycaemia in patients with T2DM are assessed within the context of disease pathogenesis and natural history.

New oral antidiabetic agents

This work focuses on the new agents used in the latest years and the overcoming ones in future, in particular incretin-based therapies, drugs inhibiting kidney glucose reabsorption (SGLT2 inhibitors), and glucokinase activators.

Current Management Strategies for Coexisting Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity

Whenever insulin is required by the obese diabetic patient after failure to respond to oral drugs, it should be preferably prescribed in combination with an oral agent, more particularly metformin or acarbose, or possibly a thiazolidinedione.

Current state of type 2 diabetes management.

  • M. Molitch
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of managed care
  • 2013
A class of medications that inhibit the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 in the kidney show promise in their ability to decrease glucose reabsorption and increase glucose excretion, and have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

The Mechanism of Metabolic Influences on the Endogenous GLP-1 by Oral Antidiabetic Medications in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The metabolic relationships between oral antihyperglycemic drugs from the aspect of gut, microbiota, hormones, β cell function, central nervous system, and other cellular mechanisms are discussed.

Chromium Picolinate and Biotin Supplementation May Improve Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Ch chromium picolinate and biotin appear to modestly improve glycemic control and are safe, over-the-counter supplements that may be clinically justified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Antidiabetic Drugs: Mechanisms of Action and Potential Outcomes on Cellular Metabolism.

The different classes of antidiabetic drugs available, their applications and mechanisms of action, particularly those of the newer and/or most widely prescribed classes are discussed, with a special emphasis on their effects on cellular metabolism.

Add-on therapies to metformin in type 2 diabetes: what modulates the respective decrements in postprandial and basal glucose?

Giptins, glitazones and sulfonylureas concomitantly act on basal and postprandial glucose even though gliptins are more efficient on postprandedial glucose.



Is There a Role for α-Glucosidase Inhibitors in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

If the ongoing EDIT trial confirms the positive results of the recent STOP-NIDDM trial, acarbose could be used, either as an alternative or in addition to changes in lifestyle, to delay development of diabetes in patients with IGT.

Antidiabetic Drugs Present and Future

There is evidence that, like metformin, thiazolidinediones also improve cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidaemia and fibrinolysis, and whether these differences will translate into clinical benefit remains to be seen.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus: what is the optimal treatment regimen?

  • D. Bell
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of medicine
  • 2004

Meglitinide Analogues in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The short action of these compounds and biliary elimination makes repaglinide and nateglinide especially suitable for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who would like to have a more flexible lifestyle, need more flexibility because of unplanned eating behaviour and support the empowerment and compliance of the patient.

A Risk-Benefit Assessment of Metformin in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Given the 4 decades of clinical experience with metformin, its antihyperglycaemic efficacy and benefits against Syndrome X, met formin offers a very favourable risk-benefit assessment when compared with the chronic morbidity and premature mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Oral antihyperglycemic therapy for type 2 diabetes: scientific review.

With few exceptions, the available oral antidiabetic agents are equally effective at lowering glucose concentrations and their mechanisms of action are different, however, and as a result they appear to have distinct metabolic effects.

Metformin: An Update

Treatment with an insulin-sensitizing agent, such as metformin, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus may correct several of the primary pathophysiological abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome.

Thiazolidinediones: a new class of antidiabetic drugs

  • C. Day
  • Medicine
    Diabetic medicine : a journal of the British Diabetic Association
  • 1999
Thiazolidinediones have been shown to improve insulin sensitivity in a range of insulin‐resistant states including obesity, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Thiazolidinediones for type 2 diabetes

Before the introduction of troglitazone in 1997 metformin was the only drug able to sensitise target tissues (skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and the liver) to insulin, and it has been proposed that the reduced action of insulin is fundamental to the cardiovascular risk factors that are part of the syndrome of insulin resistance.

Thiazolidinedione Use, Fluid Retention, and Congestive Heart Failure: A Consensus Statement From the American Heart Association and American Diabetes Association

Because people with diabetes are at increased risk for CVD and many have preexisting heart disease, the edema that sometimes accompanies the use of a TZD can be cause for concern, as it may be a harbinger or sign of congestive heart failure (CHF).