Options, feasibility, and availability of 2 /spl times/ 4 90/spl deg/ hybrids for coherent optical systems

@article{Seimetz2006OptionsFA,
  title={Options, feasibility, and availability of 2 /spl times/ 4 90/spl deg/ hybrids for coherent optical systems},
  author={M. Seimetz and C.-M. Weinert},
  journal={Journal of Lightwave Technology},
  year={2006},
  volume={24},
  pages={1317-1322}
}
Coherent optical transmission systems offer enhanced possibilities concerning multilevel modulation and the electronic compensation of transmission impairments. One of the key components in a homodyne in-phase/quadrature (IQ) receiver is a 2 times 4 90deg hybrid. However, this component is only commercially available in a form that requires an additional active control loop. This paper presents the different possible alternatives for the realization of the 2 times 4 90deg hybrids and discusses… CONTINUE READING
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