A condition-based maintenance optimization approach is developed for the road-cracking problem in order to derive optimal maintenance policies that minimize a total discounted maintenance cost. The approach is based on a Markov decision process that takes into account multiple actions with varying effects on future road performance. Maintaining the road consists of adding a new asphalt layer; however, as resurfacing actions are constrained by a maximum total road thickness, the maintenance decision is not only how thick a layer to apply, but also how much old road to remove. Each combination of these actions leads to different maintenance costs and different future degradation behaviours. The road state is modelled by a dependent bivariate deterioration variable (the longitudinal cracking percentage and the deterioration growth rate), for taking these different changes in the cracking patterns into account. Moreover, the sensitivity to cracking for existing roads can be reduced with the addition of new layers, and thus actions that can lead to states better than good-as-new have to be considered. A numerical analysis is provided to illustrate the benefits of the introduction of the deterioration speed in the decision framework, as well as the belief that initially building a road to its maximum thickness is not optimal. The trade-offs in the design decisions and the exploitation/maintenance costs are also explored.