Optimization of alginate purification using polyvinylidene difluoride membrane filtration: Effects on immunogenicity and biocompatibility of three-dimensional alginate scaffolds.


Sodium alginate is an effective biomaterial for tissue engineering applications. Non-purified alginate is contaminated with protein, lipopolysaccharide, DNA, and RNA, which could elicit adverse immunological reactions. We developed a purification protocol to generate biocompatible alginate based on (a) activated charcoal treatment, (b) use of hydrophobic… (More)