Optimal sunscreen use, during a sun holiday with a very high ultraviolet index, allows vitamin D synthesis without sunburn

@article{Young2019OptimalSU,
  title={Optimal sunscreen use, during a sun holiday with a very high ultraviolet index, allows vitamin D synthesis without sunburn},
  author={Antony R. Young and Joanna Narbutt and Graham I. Harrison and Karl P. Lawrence and M. Bell and Clare O'Connor and Peter Olsen and Katarzyna Grys and Katarzyna A Baczynska and Michał Rogowski-Tylman and Hans Christian Wulf and Aleksandra Lesiak and Peter Alshede Philipsen},
  journal={The British Journal of Dermatology},
  year={2019},
  volume={181},
  pages={1052 - 1062}
}
Sunlight contains ultraviolet (UV)A and UVB radiation. UVB is essential for vitamin D synthesis but is the main cause of sunburn and skin cancer. Sunscreen use is advocated to reduce the sun's adverse effects but may compromise vitamin D status. 
Dispelling myths about sunscreen
TLDR
This article highlights and addresses many sunscreen myths that exist today including the benefits of higher SPF sunscreen, use of sunscreen in darker skin types, and the effects of sunscreen on vitamin D production.
Everyday sunscreen use may compromise vitamin D in temperate climes
The continuing increase in skin cancer incidence has not been curbed by campaigns raising people's awareness of the risks of habitual excessive sun-exposure. An approach to combat this which appears
Low vitamin D in dark-skinned immigrants is mainly due to clothing habits and low UVR exposure: a Danish observational study.
  • P. Datta, P. Philipsen, L. Idorn, H. Wulf
  • Medicine
    Photochemical & photobiological sciences : Official journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology
  • 2021
TLDR
Sun exposure and clothing habits were the main reasons for lower 25(OH)D level after summer in the darker immigrants, as both groups had similar UVR reactivity.
Safe, mild ultraviolet‐B exposure: An essential human requirement for vitamin D and other vital bodily parameter adequacy: A review
  • J. Hawk
  • Medicine
    Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine
  • 2020
TLDR
Vitamin D adequacy needs just mild regular UVB skin exposure well under sunburning levels, unlikely to cause significant skin damage and blood pressure is reduced through low‐dose UVB‐induced production of the vasodilator nitric oxide.
Physical Determinants of Vitamin D Photosynthesis: A Review
TLDR
It can be argued that vitamin D supplementation obviates the need for solar exposure, but many studies have shown little benefit from this approach for a wide range of health outcomes, and there is increasing evidence that such exposure offers health benefits independently of vitamin D.
A revised action spectrum for vitamin D synthesis by suberythemal UV radiation exposure in humans in vivo
TLDR
It was established that the previtamin D3 action spectrum was not valid when related to the serum 25(OH)D3 levels, as weighting the UVR doses with this action spectrum did not result in a common regression line unless it was adjusted by a blue shift, with 5 nm giving the best fit.
Improving Photoprotection and Implications for 25(OH)D Formation
TLDR
The best method of photoprotection by sunscreen is two consecutive applications before sun exposure, ensuring the use of sufficient amounts of sunscreen and minimizing the unprotected skin areas.
Sunscreen photoprotection and vitamin D status
TLDR
This research highlights the importance of solar exposure to meet vitamin D requirements and the need to understand more fully the role of the sun in vitamin D deficiency.
Vitamin D: one more argument for broad‐spectrum ultraviolet A + ultraviolet B sunscreen protection
  • P. Wolf
  • Medicine
    The British journal of dermatology
  • 2019
TLDR
Two sunscreens each labelled with SPF15 and applied at an average concentration of 2 4mg cm 2 (sizably higher than the 2 mg cm 2 specified by regulatory authorities) protected the study participants from sunburn during cloudless weather conditions with a very high UV index during a week-long holiday in Tenerife in spring.
Potential of Natural Compounds as Sunscreen Agents
Copyright © 2021 Phcog.Net. This is an openaccess article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license. ABSTRACT Many skin diseases such as sunburn,
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 70 REFERENCES
The relation between sunscreen layer thickness and vitamin D production after ultraviolet B exposure: a randomized clinical trial
TLDR
A large number of people believe that sunscreen use may lead to vitamin D deficiency, and research is needed to establish a safe level of sunscreen use and to assess the risks and benefits to health.
Does chronic sunscreen use reduce vitamin D production to insufficient levels?
TLDR
It is concluded that, although sunscreens can significantly reduce the production of vitamin D under very strictly controlled conditions, their normal usage does not generally result in vitamin D insufficiency.
Sunscreen applied at ≥ 2 mg cm−2 during a sunny holiday prevents erythema, a biomarker of ultraviolet radiation‐induced DNA damage and suppression of acquired immunity
TLDR
People typically apply around 0·8 mg cm−2 and use sunscreen daily for holidays and such use results in erythema, which is a risk factor for skin cancer.
Determinants of personal ultraviolet‐radiation exposure doses on a sun holiday
Background  A great number of journeys to sunny destinations are sold to the Danish population every year. We suspect that this travel considerably increases personal annual ultraviolet‐radiation
Darkness at Noon: Sunscreens and Vitamin D3
TLDR
The results show that the sunscreen is much more effective in blocking the formation of preD3, than its labeled SPF for preventing sunburn, and raises important questions regarding the safest way to use sunlight exposure to promote healthy vitamin D3 levels.
A sunscreen's labeled sun protection factor may overestimate protection at temperate latitudes: a human in vivo study.
TLDR
The protection from cumulative sunburn with two sunscreens labeled SPF 6, but with different UVR-absorbing properties, gives much better protection against cumulative erythema than the UVB sunscreen, and shows that labeled SPf is much more reliable with broad-spectrumSunscreen is dependent on time of day and latitude.
Evaluation of sunscreen products using a reconstructed skin model exposed to simulated daily ultraviolet radiation: relevance of filtration profile and SPF value for daily photoprotection
TLDR
The recent definition of a standard daily ultraviolet radiation (DUVR) has allowed us to reproduce non‐zenithal sun exposure conditions, suggesting the need for an appropriate photoprotection.
Photoprotection and vitamin D status.
The effect of sunscreen on vitamin D: a review
TLDR
There are concerns that sunscreen use may increase the risk of vitamin D deficiency, so it is recommended to use a sunscreen containing vitamin D to protect against sunburn.
Sunscreen use and increased duration of intentional sun exposure: Still a burning issue
TLDR
Systematic review of the evidence linking sunscreen use to sun exposure duration found sunscreen use leads to longer duration of sun exposure when sun exposure is intentional, but not when sun Exposure is non intentional.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...