Optimal nutrition: calcium, magnesium and phosphorus

  title={Optimal nutrition: calcium, magnesium and phosphorus},
  author={K. D. Cashman and Albert Flynn},
  journal={Proceedings of the Nutrition Society},
  pages={477 - 487}
In the past, a major challenge for nutrition research was in defining indicators of nutritional adequacy. More recently, the research base related to the role of nutrition in chronic disease has expanded sufficiently to permit moving beyond deficiency indicators to other indicators with broader functional significance. Thus, nutrition research is faced with the new challenge of defining ‘optimal nutrition’. One definition of optimal nutrition with respect to any particular nutrient could be… 

Cardiovascular Calcification and Bone: A Comparison of The Effects of Dietary and Serum Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium and Vitamin D

It appears that the optimum intake for bone is >800 mg/d calcium, with postmenopausal women possibly requiring a total intake of >1100mg/d, and there is an association with CV calcification and CVD risk even within the normal range, suggesting that the reference ranges may need to be redefined for ‘at risk’ patients.

The role of dietary calcium in bone health

    A. Flynn
    Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • 2003
Evidence indicates that dietary Ca intake is inadequate for maintenance of bone health in a substantial proportion of some population groups, particularly adolescent girls and older women.

Variables for the Prediction of Femoral Bone Mineral Status in American Women

The absence of calcium from the predictive models indicates the need for re-evaluation of the current recommended intake levels of this nutrient, and a greater emphasis on factors such as exercise and achieving adequate weight is recommended.

Calcium intake, calcium bioavailability and bone health

    K. Cashman
    British Journal of Nutrition
  • 2002
There is a need to identify food components and/or functional food ingredients that may positively influence Ca absorption in order to ensure that Ca bioavailability from foods can be optimised.

Reduction of dietary magnesium by only 50% in the rat disrupts bone and mineral metabolism

It is demonstrated that Mg intake of 50% NR in the rat causes a reduced bone mineral content and reduced volume of the distal femur with Mg deficiency at 3 and 6 months, and that inflammatory cytokines may contribute to bone loss.

Effect of 16-weeks vitamin D replacement on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in overweight and obese adults

Effects of initial nutritional status on the responses to a school feeding programme among school children aged 6 to 13 years in the Millennium Villages Project, Siaya, Kenya

Assessment of the effect of initial nutritional status on the responses to a school feeding programme (SFP) among school children in the Millennium Villages Project (MVP), Siaya District, Kenya found that children with initial inadequate nutritional status based on weight-for-age z-score WAZ ≤ -1 SD had a higher height velocity by the 24 month study interval.

The effect of short-term calcium supplementation on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in healthy young adults

It is concluded that Ca supplementation of the usual diet in young adults suppresses bone resorption over a 2-week period and could result in suppression of the bone remodelling rate and an increase in bone mass over time.

Markers of bone turnover in relation to bone health

The aim of the present paper is to summarize the biochemical techniques currently available for assessing bone metabolism and to review the current knowledge of nutritional influences on bone turnover using these markers.

Nutritional Aspects of Osteoporosis

Part I Nutrition and development of bone in childhood and adolescence: calcium intake and age influence calcium retention in adolescence the effect of enhanced bone gain archived with calcium

Biochemical effects of a calcium supplement in osteoporotic postmenopausal women with normal absorption and malabsorption of calcium.

The results indicate that an oral calcium load rapidly suppresses bone resorption in osteoporotic subjects with normal absorption of calcium, but not in those with malabsorption of calcium.

Optimal calcium intake.

While the report, in general, is exceptionally well put together, appropriately nuanced, and well documented, there is one paragraph in section 4 (on the best ways to obtain optimal calcium intake) that contains some possibly misleading information.

Role of calcium intake in modulating age-related increases in parathyroid function and bone resorption.

Failure of elderly women to increase their calcium intake to offset age-related increases in calcium requirement contributes substantially to their development of increased parathyroid activity and increased bone resorption, whereas a high calcium intake can reverse both abnormalities.

Supplementation trials with calcium citrate malate: evidence in favor of increasing the calcium RDA during childhood and adolescence.

The advent of controlled trials of calcium supplementation and total body bone mass measurements in children and adolescents provide the first direct way of determining the amount of calcium necessary to achieve optimal skeletal accretion.

Calcium retention in relation to calcium intake and postmenarcheal age in adolescent females.

The idea that calcium retention plateaus at a certain calcium intake although it continues to increase at intakes > 2 g/d is supported.

Dietary intake of phosphorus modulates the circadian rhythm in serum concentration of phosphorus. Implications for the renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D.

The data demonstrate that in healthy men, dietary phosphorus is an important determinant of the serum concentration of phosphorus throughout most of the day and suggest that diet-induced changes in serum levels of phosphorus mediate the changes in PR and serum concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D.

Profound hypophosphataemia in patients collapsing after a “fun run”

total (non-lactational) energy expenditure comprises resting metabolic expenditure, energy expenditure induced by dietary intake, and active metabolic expenditure as a result of physical activity. It