Optimal Slack Time for Schedule-Based Transit Operations

@article{Zhao2006OptimalST,
  title={Optimal Slack Time for Schedule-Based Transit Operations},
  author={Jiamin Zhao and Maged M. Dessouky and Satish T. S. Bukkapatnam},
  journal={Transp. Sci.},
  year={2006},
  volume={40},
  pages={529-539}
}
To improve service reliability, many transit agencies include significant amounts of slack in the schedule. However, too much slack in the schedule reduces service frequency, given a fixed vehicle fleet size. We study the problem of determining the optimal slack that minimizes the passengers' expected waiting times under schedule-based control. By applying a D/G/c queue model, we show that the system is stable if slack is added in the schedule. For a single-bus loop transit network, we derive… 

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