Optimal Self-esteem is Contingent : Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic and Upward Versus Downward Contingencies

  title={Optimal Self-esteem is Contingent : Intrinsic Versus Extrinsic and Upward Versus Downward Contingencies},
  author={Roos Vonk and H Friso Smit},
We argue that noncontingent, unconditional self-esteem is not optimal but defensive. We introduce the concept of intrinsic contingency, where self-esteem is affected by whether one’s actions are self-congruent and conducive to personal growth. Whereas external contingencies, especially social and appearance, were negatively correlated with authenticity, self-compassion, and personal well-being, intrinsic contingencies were positively correlated with these measures, and uncorrelated with… CONTINUE READING

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