Optimal Foraging and Beyond: How Starlings Cope with Changes in Food Availability

  title={Optimal Foraging and Beyond: How Starlings Cope with Changes in Food Availability},
  author={Luis M. Bautista-Sopelana and Joost M. Tinbergen and Popko Wiersma and Alejandro Kacelnik},
  journal={The American Naturalist},
  pages={543 - 561}
Foraging adaptations include behavioral and physiological responses, but most optimal foraging models deal exclusively with behavioral decision variables, taking other dimensions as constraints. To overcome this limitation, we measured behavioral and physiological responses of European starlings Sturnus vulgaris to changes in food availability in a laboratory environment. The birds lived in a closed economy with a choice of two foraging modes (flying and walking) and were observed under two… 

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